Single Exercise

Movement Pattern: Gait Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

When initiating a novice client to the treadmill, please review the following

  1. START BY STRADDLING THE DECK
    Before starting the treadmill, have your client straddle the deck (feet 4-6″ on either side of belt, client holding on to handrails). If your treadmill has a safety cord, you may attach this to your clients clothes in an area that will not interfere with their arm movement.
  2. INCREASE EITHER SPEED OR INCLINE FOR WALKING SPEED
    While continuing to hold onto handrails, have client gauge the speed of the belt by first taking test strides with a single leg, then graduating to both legs. Once client is comfortable with the speed of the belt, have them release the handrails.
  3.  CUE YOUR CLIENT TO LOOK FORWARD AND STAY TOWARDS THE FRONT OF THE BELT
    It’s not uncommon for novices to watch their feet, if they are new to using a treadmill. Unfortunately, doing so often leads to a loss of balance and increased risk of falls. Not only that, but if a client is looking down, they may be more likely to start to drift towards the back of the treadmill, again putting them at risk for falling off.
  4. USE HANDRAILS ONLY FOR QUICK POSTURAL CORRECTIONS
    You should remind clients to initially step onto the treadmill while holding onto the handrails, however, holding onto the handrails is not advised. Not only does holding onto the handrails decrease the amount of calories burned from a workout (or is a sign the client has set either the speed too fast or incline too high), it almost can negatively impact a client’s balance and gait.
  5. DON’T LEAVE A MOVING TREADMILL
    Although more experienced clients may step to either side of a moving belt, it’s safest to instruct novices to either hit the emergency stop button or to manually power down the treadmill before getting off the best. And never leave a treadmill running unless you are about to get back on to the belt!
  6. LEAVE PLENTY OF SPACE
    Even experienced clients can lose their footing and fall off a treadmill. Therefore, it’s best practice to ensure there is nothing placed behind the treadmill that an exerciser could hit their head on if they fell off the back of the machine.

 

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings, Hip Adductors, Soleus
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat | Walking Lunge Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Begin with the barbell supported on top of the traps. The chest should be up and the head facing forward. Adopt a hip-width stance with the feet turned out as needed.
  2. Descend by flexing the knees, refraining from moving the hips back as much as possible. This requires that the knees travel forward. Ensure that they stay align with the feet. The goal is to keep the torso as upright as possible.
  3. Continue all the way down, keeping the weight on the front of the heel. At the moment the upper legs contact the lower legs reverse the motion, driving the weight upward.
Common Error(s): Valgus knees | Torso collapses forward
Spotting: Spotting Squats
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Chest Press | Push Up Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Starting position: Lie back on a flat bench. Using a medium width grip (a grip that creates a 90-degree angle in the middle of the movement between the forearms and the upper arms), lift the bar from the rack and hold it straight over you with your arms locked. This will be your starting position.
  2. Movement (downward phase): From the starting position, breathe in and begin coming down slowly until the bar touches your middle chest (roughly in line with your sternum).
  3. Movement (upward phase): After a brief pause, push the bar back to the starting position as you breathe out. Focus on pushing the bar using your chest muscles. Lock your arms and squeeze your chest in the contracted position at the top of the motion, hold for a second and then start coming down slowly again.
    • Tip: Ideally, lowering the weight should take about twice as long as raising it.

N.B. Avoid bouncing the weight off your chest. Also, use a spotter whenever using heavier weights or planning on lifting to muscular fatigue.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Bouncing Weights
Spotting: Barbell Bench Press
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Bench Press
Key Teaching Points

Initiation

Have client sit at the end of the bench, with the dumbbells resting on their thighs. Instruct client to rock backwards into a lying position, while simultaneously bringing the dumbbells up in front of the chest (arms should be fully extended). Client’s feet should be flat on the floor and client should maintain curvature in the low back.

Spotting

The trainer (standing behind the bench near the client’s head) should assist the client to get the weights into position. All spotting assistance should be provided by grabbing client’s wrist/forearm (and not spotting at the elbow).

Movement

Instruct client to take a prontated grip (palms facing away from face) and by bending the arm at the elbow, move the dumbbells from in front of their chest to a point where their arm is bent at slightly more than a 90° angle (generally elbow will be 1-2″ inches below parallel with the chest at this point.)

At bottom of the movement, client should pause, then return weights back to starting position.

Common Error(s): Bouncing Weights | Not engaging core
Spotting: Dumbbell Chest Press
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Deltoid (Medial), Trapezius, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Assisted Shoulder Press Progressions: Standing Shoulder Press | Push Press
Key Teaching Points
  1. Holding a dumbbell in each hand, sit on a bench (easier: use a bench that provides back support).
  2. Place the dumbbells upright on top of your thighs.
  3. Now raise the dumbbells to shoulder height (elbows ~90°) one at a time using your thighs to help propel them up into position. A spotter can also assist lifting the dumbbells into position.
  4. Make sure to pronate your wrists so that the palms of your hands are facing forward. This is your starting position.
  5. Now, exhale and push the dumbbells upward, stopping just before they touch at the top.
  6. Pause, then slowly lower the weights back down to the starting position.
Common Error(s): Bouncing Weights | Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting: Dumbbell Shoulder Press
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Pull Through | Trap Bar Deadlift Progressions: Swing
Key Teaching Points

Conventional Deadlift

  1. Set up: Stand with feet ~hip width apart, with the middle of your foot under the bar. The bar should be close to your shins but not touching them.
  2. Grip: Bend slightly through the knees, so hands reach can reach the bar (spine should remain neutral throughout). Using either a double-overhand or a mixed grip, grip the bar ~ shoulder-width apart. Arms should hang straight down (no slack) and run outside the knees.
  3. Motion/Pull:  From this slight knee bent position, grip the bar tightly (arms must remain rigid), take a big breath, tense your entire body (particularly core, forearm, lats, glutes and hamstrings), and drive up from mid-foot/heels. Bar must remain in close proximity to your body (almost touching your shins) as you lift up.
    •  Straighten your back but don’t shrug or lean back (hyperextend) at the top.
  4. Return: Slowly reverse the motion, paying particularly attention to use a hingeing of the hips/hamstrings to lower the weight (and not a squatting pattern). Once the bar clears the knees, then you can employ more knee bend to bring the load down to the ground.

Variations

  1. Romanian Deadlift: In this variation, you start standing erect and hinge down without letting the weight touch the floor.
Common Error(s): Arching the upper back | Rounded shoulders
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat | Split Squat Progressions: Bulgarian Split Squat
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Stand with dumbbells grasped to sides.

Execution

Step forward with first leg. Land on heel, then forefoot. Lower body by flexing knee and hip of front leg until knee of rear leg is almost in contact with floor. Stand on forward leg with assistance of rear leg. Lunge forward with opposite leg. Repeat by alternating lunge with opposite legs.
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward
Spotting: Travel alongside client
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deltoid (Medial) Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Upright standing neutral posture with shoulders and head back and aligned. End of dowel within palm of active hand/arm and griped at the other end by assisting hand/arm. Arms straight.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Incline Push Up Progressions: Bench Press
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a prone position (lying face down) on the floor with the legs fully extended and the toes pointed down to the floor.
  2. Place the hands on the floor, palms down, ~ 2 to 3 inches wider than shoulder-width apart with the elbows pointed outward.
  3. Keeping the core engaged (torso should remain in a straight line) push against the floor with the hands to fully extend the elbows.
  4. After completing the push-up phase, lower the body by allowing the elbows to flex to a 90° angle (or a position where the chest is hovering 1-2″ above the ground).
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Forward Head Posture | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Push Up
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a tall kneeling position with your hands on a bench, toes tucked, and knees under hips.
  2. Extend one leg at a time and assume a pushup position with the legs straight, elbows extended, and head in a neutral position looking at the floor.
  3. Slowly descend to the floor by retracting the shoulder blades and unlocking the elbows.
  4. Descend until your chest touches the bench.
  5. Push back to the starting point by extending the elbows and driving your palms into the floor.
  6. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Rounded lower back | Rounded shoulders
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Deltoid (Medial), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Seated Shoulder Press
Key Teaching Points

Seated on secure chair or bench with upright posture. Shoulder and head back and aligned. Neutral grip on pulley with both hands. Elbow at 90deg.  Use as much force as able with the weak side to raise the arm overhead.  Assisting only after attempting to engage the weak side, pull down with the opposite strong side to allow further ROM from the weak side.  You should feel a light stretch.  This should be performed pain free.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Deltoid (Posterior), Rhomboids, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: 1-Arm Row Progressions: Bent-Over Row
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position a bar in a rack to about waist height. You can also use a smith machine.
  2. Using a slightly wider than shoulder width grip (hands pronated), have client hang underneath the bar. Client’s body should be straight with heels on the ground with their arms fully extended. This will be the starting position.
  3. Instruct the client to initiate movement by flexing the elbow, pulling their chest towards the bar. Cue client to retract their shoulder blades as they perform the movement.
  4. Pause at the top of the motion, and return back to the start position.

Regression: If client is unable to maintain core stability or unable to pull their chest until it almost touches the bar, you can have client bend their knees to 90° and keep their feet flat while performing the motion.

Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Not engaging core
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hip Adductors
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Assisted Squat | Box Squat Progressions: Back Squat | Front Squat
Key Teaching Points

Standing with feet approximately shoulder width, toes pointed slightly out, grasp a dumbbell with both hands in front of chest. While keeping:

  1. Your torso erect (neutral spine)
  2. Your weight on the heels of your feet

Sit backwards until your hips break parallel and your knees are bent below 90 degrees. Pause at the bottom of the squat then pushing off your heels, return back to the starting position.

Common Error(s): Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Tibialis Anterior Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Seated upright. Maintain lumbar curve. Hands securely grip towel or theraband (wrap around). Active leg straight out in front. Other leg with bent knee at side. Wrap the closed end of towel or tharband securely around ball of foot.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Goblet Squat | Goblet Squat
Key Teaching Points

Place chair against the wall so it is secure. Sit upright with feet shoulder width apart, back under your knees, and flat on floor. Arms crossed in front.  Lean forward so weight is over ball of the foot.  Engage core, gluts and quadriceps.  Lift upwards until spine and hips are fully erect.  Breath.  Re-engage core, gluts and quadriceps.  Slowly lower under control.  Regress – arms in front or arm rest aid or higher chair.  Progress – arms crossed, lower chair.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: 1-Arm Clean and Press | Deadlift Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Stand over barbell with balls of feet positioned under bar pointing forward, hip width’s apart or slightly wider. Squat down and grip bar with overhand grip slightly wider than shoulder width (thumbs length from ends of knerlings on Olympic bar). Position shoulders over bar with back arched tightly. Arms are straight with elbows pointed along bar.

Execution

Pull bar up off floor by extending hips and knees. As bar reaches knees, vigorously raise shoulders while keeping barbell close to thighs. When barbell passes mid-thigh, allow it to contact thighs. Jump upward, extending body. Shrug shoulders and pull barbell upward with arms, allowing elbows to flex out to sides, keeping bar close to body. Aggressively pull body under bar, rotating elbows around bar. Catch bar on shoulders before knees bend lower than 90°. Stand up immediately so thighs ride no lower than parallel to floor.

Return

Bend knees slightly and lower barbell to mid-thigh position. Slowly lower bar with taut lower back and trunk close to vertical. The advanced athlete may unload (drop) bar from completed position (as shown). This technique may be practiced to reduce stress or fatigue involved in lowering bar as prescribed. Use rubber weightlifting plates on weightlifting platform if this unloading method is used (unless floor demolition is desired).
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Guidelines for properly setting up a client for indoor cycling/spinning

  1. Have client start by standing face-forward next to the bike and moving the seat so that it’s level with their hip bone.
  2. Instruct client to sit on the seat and rotate the pedals until one leg is at the bottom of the pedal stroke. If the leg is fully straight, adjust the seat down one notch.
  3. Alternatively, if the client’s leg is too bent, move the seat higher until there’s just a slight bend in the knee at the bottom of a pedal stroke.
  4. If the handlebars can be adjusted, a good rule of thumb is to set them ~1 forearm’s length from the start of the seat.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Gluteals Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lift right knee to chest and place the right hand under the knee, and left hand under ankle
  2. Pull right leg to chest into a gentle stretch while contracting left glute
  3. Step forward with right foot
  4. Alternate feet and repeat for prescribed number of repetitions
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Soleus Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Standing 1-2 feet away from a wall with your arms braced up against it, adopt a slightly staggered stance (once foot in front of the other). Keeping both feet flat against the floor, bend your knees and place more weight on the foot of your trailing leg. Hold this position to the point of mild tension (10-30 sec), then repeat with other leg.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Rhomboids, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Inverted Row | Bent-Over Row
Key Teaching Points

Secure band at mid-foot while keeping feet slightly plantar flexed and at hand by wrapping once around hand and re-gripping.

Variation

Common Error(s): Rounded shoulders | Rounded lower back | Forward Head Posture
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Push Up | Bench Press
Key Teaching Points

Hands under shoulders width and placed firmly on wall. Body posture is aligned (head, shoulders, spine). Feet are shoulder width apart and firmly planted.  Lead with chest (not chin).  Allow for some scapular retraction at the bottom phase.  Engage chest, triceps and core.

Use either the Wall, BB Rack (various heights) or Bench to adjust the intensity of the push-up without having the client on the floor.

Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Rhomboids, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: TRX Row Single Arm
Key Teaching Points
  • Fully shortened straps, facing anchor
  • Off-set stance for easier, feet together and toes pointing up for hard
  • Palms facing each other, eyes looking high, maintain plank throughout
  • Start with handles at chest and elbows flexed, maintain plank as body drops and elbows extend
  • Initiate pull with scapular-J, keeping shoulders away from ears and flex at elbows.
  • If hips begin to drop, back feet up for less resistance (exercise is too hard)
  • If instability is too much, widen the foot stance
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Goblet Squat | Walking Lunge
Key Teaching Points
  1. Bringing your arms to your side, make sure the straps are tight.
  2. Bend at the knees and slowly push your hips back while keeping your chest and head up. You core and lower back will remain tight.
  3. Once your upper thighs are parallel with the floor, slowly return to the starting position, keeping the knees slightly bent.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps fully lengthened, facing away from anchor
  • Off-set feet position is easier (more stable) than side by side, feet together is harder (less stable); feet closer to anchor for more resistance.
  • Extend arms in front of shoulders, choose appropriate foot stance
  • Maintain plank, lower body by bending elbows to 90 degrees
  • Drive through palms while squeezing chest, maintain plank
  • Watch that the straps don’t rub on the arms
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Pelvic Floor, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Plank Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps at mid-calf length
  • Body facing floor
  • Feet under anchor point, hands (elbows) under shoulders, engage core, lift knees off the ground
  • Shoulder blades in back pockets, keep body straight
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Hip Bridge | BOSU Hip Bridge Progressions: TRX Hamstring Curl to Hip Press (Bridge)
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps mid-calf length
  • Body position is ground facing up
  • Feet under anchor point, stack knees directly over hips
  • Drive heels down, lift hips to form straight line from knees to shoulders
  • Lower hips toward ground with control, keep knees over hips
  • Ensure there is not an arch in the lower back
Common Error(s): Arching the upper back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Standing Quadriceps Stretch
Key Teaching Points

Have client lie on their side, with both legs extended. Bend the top leg, grasping the foot/ankle. Hold this position for 10-30 seconds, providing a gentle amount of resistance with your hand.

Remind client to avoid holding their breath and that all stretches should be held to the point of mild tension, but never pain.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

While sitting on the ground, bend one leg towards groin while extending the other leg.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Gluteals Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

With client sitting on ground, extend one leg and cross the other over (with bent knee). With hand, gently pull knee towards chest and hold 20-30s.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Deadlift | Leg Curl
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start in a supine position on the floor with your arms at a 45 degree angle relative to your torso.
  2. Bridge your hips up by squeezing your glutes and driving your heels into the floor.
  3. Lower your hips back to the starting position and repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Deadlift
Key Teaching Points

Stand and grab two dumbbells with your knees slightly bent and your feet hip-width apart. Hold the weights at shoulder level with your palms facing toward you.

Without changing the bend in your knees, hinge at your hips and lower your torso until it’s almost parallel to the floor. Pause, and return to the starting position. That’s one repetition. Don’t allow your lower back to round as you perform the exercise.

Common Error(s): Rounded shoulders | Sagging lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge, Lower Body Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Good Morning | Back Extension Progressions: Deadlift | Snatch
Key Teaching Points

1. Get set: Stand with feet shoulder-width apart, toes pointed out, and knees slightly bent; look straight ahead. Hold the kettlebell between your legs using a two-handed, overhand grip.

2. Swing it: Keeping the arch in your lower back, bend your hips back until the kettlebell is between and behind your legs; then forcefully squeeze your glutes to extend your hips (imaging you are going to jump forward) and propel the weight up to chest height. You should not feel as though you are lifting the weight up with your shoulders, rather your hips/hamstrings should be doing all the work.

3. Bring it down: Once the bell has reached chest height, let the weight fall (i.e. swing back) between your legs as you bend your hips and slightly bend your knees. Aim to maintain a tight core throughout.

Avoid dropping into a squat on the descent. Aim to maintain just a slight bend in the knee and use the hips and hamstrings to decelerate the kettlebell, not your quadriceps.

Once the kettlebell passes back beneath your hips, extend your hips and knees to reverse the momentum as you immediately begin the next rep.

Variations

  1. Plate swing: perform motion with a 25-45 lbs plate (if plates have holes you can hold)
  2. Dumbbell swing: hold a dumbbell by the handle (can be done with 1 or 2 hands) or by one end (hold with 2-hands), execute the swing
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Rounded lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat Progressions: Walking Lunge
Key Teaching Points

Place left foot on bench or box (knee should be bent at ~90 degrees). Pushing through the heel, drive body up bring both feet on top of bench. Step down leading with the right foot.

Ensure both legs *lead* the same number of times.

Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Quadriceps, Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

The Catch

  • Arms are straight; head is neutral; shoulders are level and not hunched.
  • Upper body is leaning forward from the hips with the shoulders
    in front of the hips.
  • Shins are vertical, or as close to vertical as is comfortable for you. Shins should not move beyond perpendicular.
  • Heels may lift as needed.

The Drive

  • Start the drive by pressing with your legs, and then swing the back through the vertical position before finally adding the arm pull.
  • Hands move in a straight line to and from the flywheel.
  • Shoulders remain low and relaxed.

The Finish

  • Upper body is leaning back slightly, using good support from
    the core muscles.
  • Legs are extended and handle is held lightly below your ribs.
  • Shoulders should be low with wrists and grip relaxed. Wrists should be flat.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat Progressions: Walking Lunge | Step Up
Key Teaching Points

Start by standing with torso erect (shoulders retracted), hands on hips or at sides for balance, one foot in front of the other.

Lower body by flexing knee and hip of front leg (weight should be focus on heel of lead foot) until knee of rear leg is almost in contact with floor. Pause and return to starting position, pushing off through the heel of the lead leg.

Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Seated Row Progressions: Bent-Over Row | T-Bar Row
Key Teaching Points
  1. Choose a flat bench and place a dumbbell on each side of it.
  2. Have your client place a leg on top of the end of the bench, then bend their torso forward from the waist until the upper body is parallel to the floor. Then have your client place (same side of body as leg on the bench) on the other end of the bench for support.
  3. Use the opposite hand, have your client pick up the dumbbell on the floor and hold the weight while maintaining the neutral curvature of the spine. The palm of the hand should be facing their torso.
  4. Pull the dumbbell straight up to the side of their chest, keeping the upper arm close to their side and keeping the torso stationary. Remind your client to concentrate on retracting the scapula (squeezing their shoulder blades) as they complete the repetition and not just to pull with their arms.
  5. Pause in the fully contracted position, then lower the dumbbell back to the starting position.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Rounded lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Deltoid (Posterior), Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Bent-Over Row | 1-Arm Row Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Stand with feet shoulder width apart & slight bend in the knee. Hinge forward at the hip, keep the spine neutral. With either a pronated or supinated grip, pull the bar up to the chest, then return to starting position.

Common Error(s): Rounded lower back | Rounded shoulders
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Row | Inverted Row Progressions: 1-Arm Row | Bent-Over Row
Key Teaching Points
  1. For this exercise you will need access to a low pulley row machine with a V-bar. Note: The V-bar will enable you to have a neutral grip where the palms of your hands face each other. To get into the starting position, first sit down on the machine and place your feet on the front platform or crossbar provided making sure that your knees are slightly bent and not locked.
  2. Lean over as you keep the natural alignment of your back and grab the V-bar handles.
  3. With your arms extended pull back until your torso is at a ~90-degree angle from your legs. Your back should be slightly arched and your chest should be sticking out. You should be feeling a nice stretch on your lats as you hold the bar in front of you.
    • Tip: leaning forward slightly in the start position will increase the ROM in the movement and make it more challenging.
  4. Keeping the torso stationary, pull the handles back towards your torso while keeping the arms close to it until you touch the abdominals. Breathe out as you perform that movement. At that point you should be squeezing your back muscles hard. Hold that contraction for a second and slowly go back to the original position while breathing in.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | vertical Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Brachialis, Deltoid (Posterior), Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Chin Ups | Pull Ups
Key Teaching Points
  1. Sit down on a pull-down machine making sure to adjust the knee pad of the machine to fit your height.
  2. For a wide grip pulldown, grab the bar wider than shoulder-width with a pronated grip (palms facing forward).
  3. As you have both arms extended in front of you holding the bar at the chosen grip width, bring your torso back around 20-30 degrees while creating a curvature on your lower back and sticking your chest out. This is your starting position.
  4. As you breathe out, bring the bar down until it touches your upper chest by drawing the shoulders and the upper arms down and back.
    • Tip: Concentrate on squeezing the back muscles once you reach the full contracted position. The upper torso should remain stationary and only the arms should move. The forearms should do no other work except for holding the bar; therefore do not try to pull down the bar using the forearms.
  5. After a second at the contracted position squeezing your shoulder blades together, slowly raise the bar back to the starting position when your arms are fully extended and the lats are fully stretched. Inhale during this portion of the movement.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Nordic Hamstrings Curl | TRX Hamstring Curl to Hip Press (Bridge)
Key Teaching Points
  1. Adjust the machine lever to fit your height and lie face down on the leg curl machine with the pad of the lever on the back of your legs (just a few inches under the calves).
    • Tip: Preferably use a leg curl machine that is angled as opposed to flat since an angled position is more favorable for hamstrings recruitment.
  2. Keeping the torso flat on the bench, ensure your legs are fully stretched and grab the side handles of the machine. Position your toes straight.
  3. Curl your legs up as far as possible without lifting the upper legs from the pad. Once you hit the fully contracted position, pause for a second.
  4. Slowly lower your legs back to the starting position. This is one repetition.

Caution: Avoid using so much weight that you start using swinging and jerking as you can risk both lower back injury and also a hamstring injury.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. To keep tension on the hamstrings, keep the knees just shy of lockout.
  2. Don’t allow the back to arch, keep your hips pressed into the pad.
  3. Keep your low back flat against the pad throughout the movement.
  4. Ensure the head does not jut forward excessively.
  5. Control the movement throughout the entire range of motion.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Brachialis, Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Lat Pulldown | Assisted Chin Ups Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Grab the pull-up bar with the palms facing your face (supinated grip) and a grip slightly narrower than the shoulder width.
  2. As you have both arms extended in front of you holding the bar at the chosen grip width, keep your torso as straight as possible while maintaining a neutral curvature of your spine.
  3. As you breathe out, pull your torso up until your head is around the level of the bar. Keep the elbows close to your body.
    • Tip: Avoid kicking your legs out in an effort to generate momentum. This is more of a kipping motion and decreases the work done by the lats and biceps.
  4. Hold the contraction for ~ 1 second, then lower your torso back to the starting position (when your arms are fully extended).
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | vertical Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Brachialis, Deltoid (Posterior), Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Lat Pulldown Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Grab the pull-up bar with the palms away from your face (pronated grip) and a grip wider than the shoulder width.
  2. As you have both arms extended in front of you holding the bar at the chosen grip width, keep your torso as straight as possible while maintaining a neutral curvature of your spine.
  3. As you breathe out, pull your torso up until your head is around the level of the bar. Keep the elbows close to your body.
    • Tip: Avoid kicking your legs out in an effort to generate momentum. This is more of a kipping motion and decreases the work done by the lats and biceps.
  4. Hold the contraction for ~ 1 second, then lower your torso back to the starting position (when your arms are fully extended).
Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | vertical Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Brachialis, Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Chin Ups | Pull Ups
Key Teaching Points
  1. Use an assisted pull-up machine or securely attach a heavy-duty band to a pull-up station, securing it around just one knee. The tension should be taut enough to pull that lower leg up. Grasp the bar with an underhand grip, about shoulder-width apart, and hang at full arm extension. This is your start position.
  2. Keeping your body straight, contract your biceps and lats to pull yourself up as high as you can, driving your elbows down.
  3. Slowly release to full arm extension. Repeat for the required number of repetitions and safely dismount from the apparatus.

N.B. The weight selection plate will subtract that much weight from a client’s weight. Therefore a client with a bodyweight of 150 lbs, if they were to perform an assisted dip machine set at “50 lbs” would actually be lifting 100 lbs.

Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | vertical Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Brachialis, Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Lat Pulldown | Assisted Chin Ups Progressions: Chin Ups | Pull Ups
Key Teaching Points
  1. Securely attach a heavy-duty band to a pull-up station, securing it around just one knee. The tension should be taut enough to pull that lower leg up. Grasp the bar with your preferred grip, and hang at full arm extension. This is your start position.
  2. Keeping your body straight, contract your biceps and lats to pull yourself up as high as you can, driving your elbows down.
  3. Slowly release to full arm extension. Repeat for the required number of repetitions and safely dismount from the apparatus.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Triceps Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Pec Major
Exercise
Regressions: Assisted Dips Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. For this exercise you will need access to parallel bars. To get yourself into the starting position, hold your body at arms length (arms locked) above the bars.
  2. While breathing in, lower yourself slowly with your torso leaning forward around 30 degrees or so and your elbows flared out slightly until you feel a slight stretch in the chest.
    • Keeping your torso more upright will place a greater emphasis on the triceps relative to the chest.
  3. Once you feel the stretch, use your chest to bring your body back to the starting position as you breathe out. Tip: Remember to squeeze the chest at the top of the movement for a second.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Forward Head Posture | Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Triceps Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Pec Major
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Dips
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Mount shoulder width dip bar, arms straight with shoulders above hands. Kneel on the pad, keeping torso straight throughout the entire movement.

Execution

Lower body until slight stretch is felt in shoulders. Push body up until arms are straight. Repeat.

N.B. The weight selection plate will subtract that much weight from a client’s weight. Therefore a client with a bodyweight of 150 lbs, if they were to perform an assisted dip machine set at “50 lbs” would actually be lifting 100 lbs.

Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Torso collapses forward | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1.  Find a box set just above parallel and position behind you.
  2. Descend by simultaneously pushing the hips back and bending the knees.
  3. Once your butt touches the box, begin to reverse the movement.
  4. Keep your abs braced and drive your feet through the floor.
  5. Finish the lift by exhaling as you fully extend the hips and knees.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Depth Jump
Key Teaching Points

Box jumps are a plyometric movement designed to improve explosive power, therefore when prescribed should be limited to sets of 6 reps or fewer, with each jump done explosively and with perfect technique.

  1. Begin with a box of an appropriate height 1-2 feet in front of you. Start with chest up, knees slightly bent and not caving in, athletic position with feet shoulder width apart.
  2. Perform a short squat in preparation for jumping, swinging your arms behind you.
  3. Rebound out of this position, extending through the hips, knees, and ankles to jump as high as possible. Swing your arms forward and up.
  4. Land on the box with the knees bent, absorbing the impact through the legs, landing in the same position as you took off from. You should NOT be landing in a full squat position. You can jump from the box back to the ground, or preferably step down one leg at a time.

Common Errors

  1. Lifting the knees to almost chest height in order to land on a high box (a sign of great hip mobility (flexion), not jumping power).
  2. Landing heavy (high stress in shin/ankle).
  3. Landing with valgus knees (particularly female athletes).
  4. Rapid fire box jumps involving rebounding off the box (landing in a high stress position for the achilles).
    • You see this most often when using box jumps as a conditioning tool (significant injury risk).
  5. Standing too close to the box and catching the shins on the front of the box.
Common Error(s): Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

The depth jump is a plyometric movement designed to improve explosive power, therefore reps should be limited to 6 or fewer.

Start with a plyometric box between 12-42″ high. N.B. The higher the box, the greater the stress experienced.

  1. Assume a comfortable upright stance with feet shoulder-width on the box, toes near the edge of the box.
  2. Step from box.
  3. Land on the floor with both feet, swinging the arms to help propel yourself back upwards.
  4. Upon landing, immediately jump up as high as possible.
    • Time on the ground should be kept to a minimum.

Variation

  1. Depth jumps can be combined with a box jump or bounds for more advanced trainees
Common Error(s): Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Split Squat Progressions: Walking Lunge
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Stand with dumbbells grasped to sides facing away from bench. Extend leg back and place top of foot on bench.

Execution

Squat down by flexing knee and hip of front leg until knee of rear leg is almost in contact with floor. Return to original standing position by extending hip and knee of forward leg and repeat. Continue with opposite leg.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Torso collapses forward
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deltoid (Medial) Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Lateral Shoulder Raise Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Grasp dumbbells in front of thighs with elbows slightly bent. Bend over slightly with hips and knees bent slightly.
    • The straighter the arm, the more stress will be experienced at the elbow and shoulder joints.
  2. Raise upper arms to sides until elbows are just below shoulder height. Maintain elbows’ height above or equal to wrists.
  3. Lower and repeat.

Variations

  1. Clients can use an elastic band or tubing
  2. Clients can perform the movement using 1-arm at a time using the cable stack.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Seated Leg Extension Progressions: Goblet Squat | Back Squat
Key Teaching Points
  1. First choose your weight and sit on the machine with your legs under the pad (feet pointed forward) and the hands holding the side bars. Adjust the pad so that it falls just above your feet. This will be your starting position.
  2. Using your quadriceps, extend your legs as you exhale. Ensure that the rest of the body remains stationary on the seat. Pause a second on the contracted position.
    • Tip: Keep in mind that a heavy weight pulling on a fully-extended leg causes a lot of shear stress on the knee. Therefore it makes more sense to keep the weight lighter and use a higher number of repetitions when using this machine.
  3. Slowly lower the weight back to the original position as you inhale.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat | Box Squat Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. This exercise is best performed inside a squat rack for safety purposes. To begin, first set the bar on a rack that best matches your height. Once the correct height is chosen and the bar is loaded, bring your arms up under the bar while keeping the elbows high and the upper arm slightly above parallel to the floor. Rest the bar on top of the deltoids and cross your arms while grasping the bar for total control.
  2. Lift the bar off the rack by first pushing with your legs and at the same time straightening your torso.
  3. Step away from the rack and position your legs using a shoulder width medium stance with the toes slightly pointed out. Keep your head up at all times as looking down will get you off balance and also maintain a straight back. This will be your starting position.
  4. Begin to slowly lower the bar by bending the knees as you maintain a straight posture with the head up. Continue down until the angle between the upper leg and the calves becomes slightly less than 90-degrees (which is the point in which the upper legs are below parallel to the floor). Inhale as you perform this portion of the movement.
  5. Begin to raise the bar as you exhale by pushing the floor mainly with the middle of your foot as you straighten the legs again and go back to the starting position.
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Valgus knees | Foot/ankle collapse
Spotting: 2 person spotting
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Leg Extension | Box Squat Progressions: Back Squat | Front Squat
Key Teaching Points
  1. Sit down on the machine and place your legs on the platform, adopting a shoulder width foot stance.
  2. Lower the safety bars holding the weighted platform in place and press the platform all the way up until your legs are almost fully extended in front of you.
    • Tip: Avoid locking your knees.
  3. As you inhale, slowly lower the platform until your upper and lower legs make a ~90-degree angle.
  4. Pushing mainly with the heels of your feet and using the quadriceps go back to the starting position as you exhale.
  5. Repeat for the recommended amount of repetitions and remember to lock the safety pins properly once you are done. You do not want that platform falling on you fully loaded.
Common Error(s): Valgus knees | Not engaging core | Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Deltoid (Medial), Pec Major, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Seated Shoulder Press Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start by placing a barbell that is racked at roughly chest height. Grab the barbell slightly wider than shoulder-width using a pronated (palms facing forward) grip.
  2. Slightly bend the knees and place the barbell on your collar bone. Lift the barbell up keeping it lying on your chest. Take a step back and position your feet shoulder width apart from each other.
  3. Press the bar up over your head by extending your arms.
  4. Slowly lower the bar down to the collarbone, then lift the bar back up to the starting position.
  5. Repeat for the recommended amount of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Bouncing Weights | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Deltoid (Medial), Pec Major, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Seated Shoulder Press Progressions: Power Snatch
Key Teaching Points
  1. Adjust the barbell to just below shoulder height then load the desired weight onto the bar.
  2. Assume a shoulder-width stance and place your hands outside of shoulder-width with a pronated grip on the bar.
  3. Step underneath the bar and rack it on your traps.
  4. Take two steps back, inhale, brace, and tuck the chin to prepare to go overhead.
  5. Dip slightly at the knees and hips, then press the bar to lockout overhead by extending your legs and arms simultaneously.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Gastrocnemius, Pec Major, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • In squatted position, place both hands on the floor in front of you, just outside of your feet.
  • Jump both feet back into plank position.
  • Drop to a pushup — your chest should touch the floor.
  • Return to plank position.
  • Jump feet back in toward hands.
  • Explosively jump up into the air, reaching arms straight overhead.
Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Not engaging core | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Biceps Synergist(s): Brachialis, Brachioradialis
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Standing straight up, feet together and dumbbells by your side. The dumbbells should not be touching your body.
  2. Your palms should facing upwards.
  3. Take up the slack by bending the elbows slightly. Tension should be on the biceps.
  4. Slowly curl the dumbbells up as far as possible.
  5. Squeeze the biceps hard, and then slowly lower the dumbbells back down to the starting position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Biceps Synergist(s): Brachialis, Brachioradialis
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand up straight while holding an EZ curl bar at the wide outer handle. The palms of your hands should be facing forward and slightly tilted inward due to the shape of the bar. Keep your elbows close to your torso.
  2. Now, while keeping your upper arms stationary, exhale and curl the weights forward while contracting the biceps. Focus on only moving your forearms.
  3. Continue to raise the weight until your biceps are fully contracted and the bar is at shoulder level. Hold the top contracted position for a moment and squeeze the biceps.
  4. Then inhale and slowly lower the bar back to the starting position.
  5. Repeat for the recommended amount of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Biceps Synergist(s): Brachialis, Brachioradialis
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set up for the exercise by grasping a set of dumbbells and standing straight up with the dumbbells by your side.
  2. Your palms should be facing up, and the dumbbells not touching your body.
  3. Before starting the set, take up the slack by lifting up the weight slightly so the tension is on your bicep muscles.
  4. Starting with your weakest arm (usually the left), curl the dumbbell up as far as possible.
  5. Squeeze the bicep at the top of the exercise, and then slowly lower the weight down without it touching your body or taking the tension off your bicep.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Biceps Synergist(s): Brachialis, Brachioradialis
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

 

  1. Sit in an upright position on a flat bench, hinge forward and position your elbow near the base of your knee. Place your free hand on the other knee to stabilize yourself.
  2. Using a supinated (palms facing up) grip, take a deep breath and curl the dumbbell towards your shoulder.
  3. Once the bicep is fully shortened, slowly lower the weight back to the starting position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Whilst keeping your elbows close to your stomach and shoulders pinned back, grip the bar with a pronated grip (palms facing downwards) shoulder width apart. Your feet should be positioned relatively close whilst your knees are allowed a slight bend also.
  2. Leaning slightly forwards, exhale your breath and push the bar down using only your triceps until the bar hits your hip/upper thigh region. At this point, the arms should be fully extended and there should be considerable stress or tension placed on the triceps muscle.
  3. Throughout the movement, your shoulders and arms should be still and the forearms should be the only muscle group moving.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Brachialis Synergist(s): Biceps, Brachioradialis
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. The hammer curl is a great exercise for the biceps and forearms. Set up by grasping a set of dumbbells and standing straight up with the dumbbells by your sides.
  2. You should be using a neutral grip, meaning your palms are facing your body.
  3. Bend your arms slightly to take tension into the biceps.
  4. Keeping your body fixed and elbows in at your sides, slowly curl the dumbbells up as far as possible.
  5. Squeeze the biceps at the top of the movement, and then slowly lower the weight back to the starting position.
  6. Repeat for desired reps.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Choose a pair of dumbbells and stand up straight with your feet at around shoulder width apart.
  2. Hold the dumbbells with your arms fully extended down by your thighs in front of you body.
  3. Use an overhand grip (palms facing your body). Hold the dumbbells roughly 4 inches off of your body. This is the starting position.
  4. Begin by raising your arms straight out in front of you body with your palms facing the floor. Keep a slight bend in your elbow.
  5. Moving only at the shoulders and keeping your body as still as possible, continue raising the dumbbells out in front of you until your arms are just above parallel to the floor.
  6. Pause for a brief moment at the top of the movement, and slowly lower the dumbbells back to the starting position.
  7. Repeat for desired reps.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Torso collapses forward
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Triceps Extension | Pushdown Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Using a neutral grip, hold two dumbbells extended in front of your chest. Your arms should be perpendicular to the floor.
  2. Keeping the upper arms stationary, lower the dumbbells by allowing the elbows to flex. Inhale as you perform this portion of the movement. Pause once the dumbbells are alongside the forehead. Ensure the movement happens at the elbow, and not the shoulder.
  3. Lift the bar back to the starting position by extending the elbow and exhaling.
  4. Repeat.

Variation

  1. EZ Curl: Have client perform the movement with an EZ curl bar, bringing the bar down to just above the forehead.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Rhomboids Synergist(s): Biceps, Brachialis, Deltoid (Posterior), Rotator Cuff
Exercise
Regressions: Pull Apart Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Attach a rope to a pulley station set at about eye level.
  2. Grasp both ends of the rope with a neutral grip
    • a pronated grip limits the degree of external rotation of the shoulder and can exacerbate issues for clients with internally rounded shoulders)
  3. Step back so you’re supporting the weight with arms completely outstretched and assume a staggered (one foot forward) stance. Bend the knees slightly for a stable base.
  4. Retract the scapulae (imagine trying to squeeze someone’s hand between your shoulder blades) and pull the center of the rope slightly up towards the face. A good cue is to think about pulling the ends of the rope apart, not just pulling back.
  5. As you near your face, externally rotate so your knuckles are facing the ceiling.
  6. Hold for one second at the top position and slowly lower the weight.

Notes

  1. This is not an exercise where the focus is on moving huge loads. Go with higher reps, a lighter load and proper form with each repetition.
  2. If the attachment is too high, you will involve more downward rotation of the scapula. Most clients need additional work on upward rotation of the scapula, therefore keep the cable/band at head height for best results.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Good Morning Progressions: Deadlift | Swing
Key Teaching Points

Stand with feet shoulder width apart, a slight bend in the knees. Keeping spine neutral, hinge (pivot) at the hips so torso is bent forward and allow arms to hang down between legs.

With arms extended, grasp the rope attachment on the cables. Keeping the arms extended, stand straight up attention, pulling the rope forward so that it rests slightly in front of your body.

Return back to starting position, ensuring you maintain neutral spine throughout the motion.

Common Error(s): Rounded lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deltoid (Posterior) Synergist(s): Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Hinge from the hips until your body is almost parallel to the floor and allow the arms to hang straight down from the shoulders with a neutral grip.
  2. Take a deep breath and pull the dumbbells towards the ceiling using the rear deltoids.
  3. Slowly lower the dumbbells back to the starting position under control.
  4. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Rounded lower back | Rounded shoulders | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior)
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Before you start, adjust the seat height so that the bottom of the arm pads are about level with your chest when you’re sitting on the machine.
  2. Sit on the machine, grasp the handles.
  3. Keeping your body fixed, slowly bring the handles together.
  4. Squeeze the chest muscles, then slowly lower back to the starting position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Triceps Extension | Pushdown Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Grasp cable bar from medium high pulley with narrow or shoulder width overhand grip. Turn body away from pulley apparatus and position turned cable bar behind neck. Bend over downward with cable bar positioned behind neck, gripped at each side. Lunge forward with one leg. Allow elbows to be pulled back under cable resistance.

Execution

Extend forearms forward until elbows are straight. Allow cable bar to return back over neck. Repeat.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Forward Head Posture | Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Triceps Extension | Pushdown
Key Teaching Points
  1. Place the cable as low as you can on the machine and grab the pully without any attachments at all.
  2. Take a big step back and put your opposite foot forward.
  3. Position your upper arm parallel to the floor or slightly above.
  4. Under strict control, extend your elbow back until your triceps are fully contracted.
  5. Return to the starting position and repeat.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Spinal Erectors, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Snatch
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Stand with feet apart and toes pointing outward slightly. Position dumbbell in front of thigh with knuckles forward.

Execution

Squat down with back arched and lower dumbbell between knees with arm straight and shoulder over dumbbell. Pull dumbbell up by extending hips and knees. Jump upward extending body. Shrug shoulders and pull dumbbell upward with arm, allowing elbow to pull up to side, keeping elbow over dumbbell as long as possible. Aggressively pull body under dumbbell. Catch dumbbell at arm’s length while moving into squat position. As soon as dumbbell is caught on locked out arm in squat position, squat up into standing position with dumbbell over head.

Return

Lower dumbbell to front of shoulder, then down to original position in front of thigh. Repeat.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Rounded lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Power Snatch | Snatch Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Stand over barbell with balls of feet positioned under bar hip width or slightly wider than hip width apart. Squat down and grip bar with very wide overhand grip. Position shoulders over bar with back arched tightly. Arms are straight with elbows pointed along bar.

Execution

Pull bar up off floor by extending hips and knees. As bar reaches knees, back stays arched and maintains same angle to floor as in starting position. When barbell passes knees, vigorously raise shoulders while keeping bar as close to legs as possible. When bar passes upper thighs, allow it to contact thighs. Jump upward extending body. Shrug shoulders and pull barbell upward with arms, allowing elbows to pull up to sides, keeping them over bar as long as possible. Aggressively pull body under bar. Catch bar at arm’s length while moving into squat position. As soon as barbell is caught on locked out arms in squat position, squat up into standing position with barbell over head.

Return

Bend knees slightly and lower barbell to mid-thigh position. Slowly lower bar with taut lower back and trunk close to vertical. The advanced athlete may unload (drop) bar from completed position. This technique may be practiced to reduce stress or fatigue involved in lowering bar as prescribed. Use rubber weightlifting plates on weightlifting platform if this unloading method is used (unless floor demolition is desired).
Common Error(s): Bouncing Weights | Rounded lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deltoid (Posterior) Synergist(s): Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Face the pec deck machine while seated with your chest against the pad and the handles positioned in front of your torso.
  2. Reach forward and grasp each handle with a pronated or neutral grip.
  3. Contract the rear delts while keeping the elbows bent and open the arms in a reverse fly motion.
  4. Slowly lower the handles back to the starting position and repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Rectus Abdominus, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Plank Push Up | Plank with Leg Raise
Key Teaching Points

Set Up

Lie prone (face down) on mat. Place forearms on mat, elbows under shoulders. Place legs together with toes on floor.

Execution

Raise body upward by straightening body in straight line. Hold position, making sure bum is not higher than shoulders, not allowing midsection to sag or drop. Aim to hold for 30-60 seconds.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Trendelenburg Hip Drop
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Lie on your back with your arms extended in front of your shoulders.
  • Bend your hips and knees to a 90-degree angle.
  • Tighten your abs and take a deep breath in.
  • As you exhale, slowly extend your left leg toward the floor and bring your right arm overhead.
  • Slowly return your arm and leg to the starting position.
  • Repeat with your opposite arm and leg. Continue alternating.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lay supine in a relaxed position with your arms behind your head and legs straight.
  2. Exhale as you raise one knee towards your face while driving the opposite elbow to the knee.
  3. Once your abs are fully contracted, slowly lower yourself back to the starting position and repeat on the opposite side.
  4. Complete for the assigned number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Rectus Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lay supine in a relaxed position with your knees up and hands across your chest.
  2. Exhale and squeeze your abs as you curl your upper body off the floor.
  3. Once your abs are fully contracted and your upper back is off the floor, slowly lower yourself back to the starting position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | flexion Target: Rectus Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Crunch Progressions: Stability Ball Pike | TRX Pike
Key Teaching Points

Set-up

Have client lie on their back on the floor with one leg extended straight and flat on the floor. The knee of the opposite leg should be bent and the foot flat. Have client place their hands hands palms down on the floor underneath the natural arch in their lower back. (Make sure client does not flatten their backs.)

Execution

Have client slowly raise their head and shoulders off the floor without bending the lower back or spine, and hold this position for 7 to 10 seconds, breathing deeply the entire time. That’s one repetition.

Do all repetitions. In subsequent sets, switch legs that are extended.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | flexion Target: Hip Flexors Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lay supine in a relaxed position with your knees up and hands across your chest.
  2. Exhale and squeeze your core as you curl your upper body off the floor.
  3. Once your torso is perpendicular to the floor, slowly lower yourself back to the starting position.
  4. Complete for the assigned number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set Up

Lie on side on mat. Place forearm on mat under shoulder, so forearm forms a 90 degree angle perpendicular to body. Place upper leg directly on top of lower leg and straighten knees and hips.

Execution

Raise hips off mat by straightening waist so body is ridged. Hold position, ensuring torso remains in line with legs. Don’t allow hips to drop back. Hold 20-40 seconds, then repeat with opposite side.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Core | flexion Target: Hip Flexors Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Hanging Leg Raise
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lay supine in a relaxed position with your legs straight and your hands on side of your body for support.
  2. Keep your legs straight and raise them towards your forehead while contracting your abdominals and exhaling.
  3. Once your abs are fully contracted and your legs are slightly above parallel, slowly lower your legs back to the starting position.
Common Error(s): Rounded lower back | Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: BOSU Plank | Plank Progressions: Stability Ball ‘Stir the Pot’ | Rollout
Key Teaching Points

Same position and set up as a typical plank.  Special care when getting in and out of position as the stability ball is unstable.  To increase intensity roll elbows away from body.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Rectus Abdominus Synergist(s): Latissimus Dorsi, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Plank Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Kneel in front of a stability ball with your knees hip-width apart.
  2. Place your forearms on the ball, hands in loose fists.
  3. Keeping your back flat, brace your core and slowly roll the ball away from you by straightening your arms
  4. Extend as far as you can without allowing your hips to drop
  5. Pause, then bend your elbows to roll the ball back to start.
  6. Repeat.

Variation

To make this exercise more challenging, perform from a full plank position.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | flexion Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Hip Flexors, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lay down on your back on a flat bench with your legs hanging off one end.
  2. Extend your arms out above your head, and straighten your legs. You should be laying completely flat. This is the start of the exercise.
  3. In one motion, while keeping your hands and feet together, raise your legs and bring your arms forward as if you were trying to touch them together.
  4. Lower back to the starting position. Repeat for desired reps.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Hip Flexors
Exercise
Regressions: Plank | TRX Hinge Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Assume a standard push up position with proper hand position under the shoulders and neutral spine with the core engaged.  Carefully place one foot at a time on top of the stability ball while maintaining proper alignment.  Pivot at toes with neutral ankle position. Consider the help of a friend or spotter or place ball near wall so that it doesn’t move away from you during initiation and exit from the starting position.  Initiate movement by engaging core as you drive your pelvis towards the ceiling allowing your feet to roll forward on the ball.  Slowly lower back down without sagging the lower back and repeat.  Note this is a very challenging exercise and should be completed pain free.

Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Gluteals, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Starting Position

Starting on all fours (hands and knees on an exercise mat) positioning your knees underneath your hips and your hands directly underneath your shoulders with fingers pointing forward.

Engage your core and abdominal muscles and focus on keeping a neutral spine throughout, avoiding any excessive sagging or arching.

Movement

The goal of this movement is to move the opposite arm and leg simultaneously. Begin by slowly extending the left leg until it is full extended (near parallel to the floor), ensuring you do not rotate at the hip.

Simultaenously, the right arm should raise and straighten until it is near parallel to the floor. Once again, try to avoid allowing the shoulder or torso to rotate. The head should remain in line with the spine throughout the movement (only raise the arm and leg to a height that allow you to maintain the shoulders and pelvis in parallel to one another, the core engaged and the spine in neutral position).

Slowly lower arm and leg back to starting kneeling position, then repeat on other side of the body.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | flexion Target: Rectus Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Crunch Progressions: Stability Ball Plank
Key Teaching Points

While seated on stability ball, carefully roll forward so that the stability ball sits at about the lumbar region of your back.  Place your hands behind your head and relax your head.  Do not initiate movement via the chin/head first, but rather keep spinal in neutral posture and initiate a controlled movement by engaging the abdomen as you sit upwards.  Do not over curl your thoracic spine, rather imagine your chest rising towards the ceiling as you crunch up with abdominal engagement.

Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Rounded lower back
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Box Squat | TRX Assisted Squat Progressions: Back Squat | Goblet Squat
Key Teaching Points

Either place a ball in the small of your lower back (or have a partner do it for you), then step into position. Standing with feet approximately shoulder width apart, feet far enough forward so that when you are at the bottom of the squat, knees aren’t dramatically past the toes.

Holding a dumbbell in both hands, sit backwards into a squat until your hips break parallel and your knees are bent below 90 degrees. Ensure that you keep: 1) your torso erect and 2) your weight on the heels of your feet. Pause at the bottom of the squat then pushing off your heels, return back to the starting position.

Try to avoid having client lean backwards into the ball too aggressively. The ball is to provide a small amount of assistance in helping the client keep their torso erect.

Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Latissimus Dorsi, Pec Major
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Deltoid (Posterior), Obliques
Exercise
Regressions: Pallof Press Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Feet shoulder width apart, core engaged, upright and neutral posture throughout movement.
  • Hands together gripping cable. Cable pull is perpendicular to your starting position.
  • Extend arms (holding cable) from torso straight out – watch that hips and torso do not rotate toward/away from anchor (i.e., maintain facing forward).
  • Complete sets on both sides
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Hip Bridge | Single Leg Bridge Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set up the barbell parallel to the bench.
  2. Position yourself on the floor, with your shoulders and shoulder blades against the bench. Again, if they don’t reach the bench when you are sitting on the floor you can raise your butt a little bit off the floor.
  3. Roll the barbell toward you (you may want to wrap the bar with a pad, exercise mat or towel), over your legs until it’s directly over your hips.
  4. Put your elbows on the bench and your hands on the bar to steady it.  It is very important that your body is aligned and your spine is neutral.
  5. Take a deep breath in, then exhale all the air out through your mouth and brace your core.
  6. Drive through your heels and squeeze your glutes to lift your hips (and the barbell).
  7. Come down smoothly, with your core still braced.

Variations:

  1. Perform the motion using the lying leg curl machine
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior)
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lie down on a flat bench with a dumbbell on each hand resting on top of your thighs. The palms of your hand will be facing each other.
  2. Then using your thighs to help raise the dumbbells, lift the dumbbells one at a time so you can hold them in front of you at shoulder width with the palms of your hands facing each other. Raise the dumbbells up like you’re pressing them, but stop and hold just before you lock out. This will be your starting position.
  3. With a slight bend on your elbows in order to prevent stress at the biceps tendon, lower your arms out at both sides in a wide arc until you feel a stretch on your chest. Breathe in as you perform this portion of the movement.
    • Tip: Keep in mind that throughout the movement, the arms should remain stationary; the movement should only occur at the shoulder joint.
  4. Return your arms back to the starting position as you squeeze your chest muscles and breathe out.
    • Tip: Make sure to use the same arc of motion used to lower the weights.
  5. Hold for a second at the contracted position and repeat the movement for the prescribed amount of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Bouncing Weights | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Incline Push Up Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lie flat on an incline bench and set your hands well outside of shoulder width.
  2. Set your shoulder blades by pinching them together and driving them into the bench.
  3. Take a deep breath and allow your spotter to help you with the lift off in order to maintain tightness through your upper back.
  4. Let the weight settle and ensure your upper back remains tight after lift off.
  5. Inhale and allow the bar to descend slowly by unlocking the elbows.
  6. Lower the bar in a straight line to the base of the sternum (breastbone) and touch the chest.
  7. Push the bar back up in a straight line by pressing yourself into the bench, driving your feet into the floor for leg drive, and extending the elbows.
  8. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Barbell Bench Press
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Incline Push Up Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Pick up the dumbbells off the floor using a neutral grip (palms facing in). Position the ends of the dumbbells in your hip crease, and sit down on the edge of an incline bench.
  2. To get into position, lay back and keep the weights close to your chest. Once you are in position, take a deep breath, and press the dumbbells to lockout at the top.
  3. Slowly lower the dumbbells under control as far as comfortably possible (the handles should be about level with your chest).
  4. Contract the chest and push the dumbbells back up to the starting position.
  5. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Bouncing Weights
Spotting: Dumbbell Chest Press
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Brachialis, Deltoid (Posterior), Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Seated Row Progressions: Bent-Over Row
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position a bar into a landmine or in a corner to keep it from moving. Load an appropriate weight onto your end.
  2. Stand over the bar, and position a Double D row or V-handle around the bar next to the collar. Using your hips and legs, rise to a position where your hips are hinged at ~45°.
  3. Assume a wide stance with your hips back and your chest up. Your arms should be extended. This will be your starting position.
  4. Pull the weight to your upper abdomen by retracting the shoulder blades and flexing the elbows.
    • Do not jerk the weight or cheat during the movement.
    • Do not stand up with the weight, maintain the hinge position in your hips throughout.
Common Error(s): Arching the upper back | Not engaging core | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Obliques, Quadriceps, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Also known as the Grappler press.

  • Wedge a barbell into a corner, or into a landmine attachment.
  • Get into a square stance. Your knees should be slightly bent, and you should a slight forward lean in your torso. Adopt a tripod foot base, meaning, your weight should be on the mid/back of your feet, and all of your toes should remain in contact with the ground, particularly your big and baby toes.
  • When you are in the starting position, your arm should be kept tight to your side, and in line with your arm pit.
  • Before you perform each press, take a deep breath into your belly, brace your core, lightly tuck your rib cage towards your hips (close the space in your midsection), and squeeze your glutes.
  • When you press the barbell, extend your elbow, but do not hyperextend it. Keep your shoulder down, and do not shrug the weight, as this is a pressing movement.
  • Exhale after you have pressed the bar and it is moving away from your body.
  • Reset and repeat for the desired number of reps.

In increase the focus on the upper body and core, start your athlete in a half-kneeling position.

To make this movement more applied to sport, you can:

  • Start the movement with a half-squat and press (getting full extension by finishing on your toes)
  • Start with rotation: start in a partial squat (in almost a puncher-stance) with the barbell down by your side. Aggressively drive the bar up, pivoting on your back foot to end up on your toe.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Secure BB into landmine.  Apply appropriate load to open end of BB.  Hold hands clasped over end of BB.
  2. With intrinsic core engaged rotate BB in arc motion from side to side.
  3. Do not lose core engagement.  If pain in low back stop and lighten load.
  4. Legs and arms should remain fairly straight with only a slight bend at elbows and knees.
  5. Feet should be slightly wider than shoulder width to establish a strong base of support.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior)
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. To get yourself into the starting position, place the pulleys on a high position (above your head), select the resistance to be used and hold the pulleys in each hand.
  2. Step forward in front of an imaginary straight line between both pulleys while pulling your arms together in front of you. Your torso should have a small forward bend from the waist. This will be your starting position.
  3. With a slight bend on your elbows in order to prevent stress at the biceps tendon, extend your arms to the side (straight out at both sides) in a wide arc until you feel a stretch on your chest. Breathe in as you perform this portion of the movement.
    • Tip: Keep in mind that throughout the movement, the arms and torso should remain stationary; the movement should only occur at the shoulder joint.
  4. Return your arms back to the starting position as you breathe out. Make sure to use the same arc of motion used to lower the weights.
  5. Hold for a second at the starting position and repeat the movement for the prescribed amount of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Plank | Crunch Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

1.) Start off by laying on your back with your arms and feet extended out with an exercise held in between your feet.

2.) Once in position slowly bring your upper and lower body together at the same time, squeezing with your core, and once reaching the top of the movement transfer the ball from your feet to your hands.

3.) After the transfer slowly move back to the original starting position with the ball still kept in your hands extended out and your legs kept straight out.

4.) Repeat for as many reps and sets as desired.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | extension Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Deadlift
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position thighs prone on large pad and lower legs under padded brace
    • Optional: hold weight to chest.
  2. Lower body by bending waist until fully flexed.
  3. Slowly raise torso until it is parallel to legs.
  4. Repeat.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | flexion Target: Rectus Abdominus Synergist(s): Hip Flexors, Latissimus Dorsi, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Hang from a chin-up bar with both arms extended at arms length in top of you using either a wide grip or a medium grip. The legs should be straight down with the pelvis rolled slightly backwards.
  2. Raise your legs until the torso makes a 90-degree angle with the legs.
    • Bending knees = easier
    • Straight legs = harder
  3. Exhale as you perform this movement and hold the contraction for a second or so.
  4. Go back slowly to the starting position as you breathe in.
  5. Repeat for the recommended amount of repetitions.

Regression (Knee/Hip Raise on Parallel Bars)

  1. Position your body on the vertical leg raise bench so that your forearms are resting on the pads next to the torso and holding on to the handles. Your arms will be bent at a 90 degree angle.
  2. The torso should be straight with the lower back pressed against the pad of the machine and the legs extended pointing towards the floor. This will be your starting position.
  3. Now as you breathe out, lift your legs up as you keep them extended. Continue this movement until your legs are roughly parallel to the floor and then hold the contraction for a second. Tip: Do not use any momentum or swinging as you perform this exercise.
  4. Slowly go back to the starting position as you breathe in.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | extension Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set up in a prone position with your hands by your side (or behind your back) and your feet together.
  2. Extend your lower back by contracting your spinal erectors.
  3. Slowly lower back to the starting position and repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Abductors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set up for the cable hip abduction by attaching an ankle strap (if one is not available, a single handle may suffice) to the low pulley of a cable pulley machine and set your desired weight on the stack.
  2. Attach the ankle strap to your left ankle and stand up straight with your feet close together with your right foot closest to the machine.
  3. You can use your right arm to hold onto the machine for stability. You are now in the staring position.
  4. Begin the movement by lifting your left leg straight out to your side as high as comfortably possible. This will lift the weight from the stack.
  5. Pause for a moment and then slowly lower your leg back to the starting position.
  6. Repeat for the desired amount of reps.
  7. Turn around, attach the the strap to your right ankle and then repeat with your right leg.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Adductors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set up for the cable hip adduction by attaching an ankle strap (if one is not available, a single handle may suffice) to the low pulley of a cable pulley machine and set your desired weight on the stack.
  2. Attach the ankle strap to your left ankle and stand up straight with your feet close together with your left foot closest to the machine.
  3. You can use your left arm to hold onto the machine for stability. You are now in the staring position.
  4. Begin the movement by lifting your left foot off the floor to take the weight off the rack.
  5. Keep your leg as straight as possible and begin slowly moving it across your body until your ankle passes your standing leg.
  6. Pause for a moment and then slowly reverse the movement and bring your leg back to the starting position.
  7. Repeat for the desired amount of reps.
  8. Turn around, attach the the strap to your right ankle and then repeat with your right leg.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lay prone with waist on stability ball on exercise bench.
  2. Grasp secure anchor or side of bench.
  3. Feet should be above floor with legs straight.
  4. Holding firmly on anchor, extend legs upward by lifting and straightening leg as high as possible.
  5. Lower legs to original position with thighs close to stability ball. Repeat.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hip Adductors, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position the bar over the top of your feet and assume a wide stance (determined by your hip structure and limb length).
  2. Assume a double overhand grip directly underneath your shoulders and deadlift the weight into position at the top with the hips and knees locked out.
  3. Push your hips back and hing forward until the bar is just below knee height.
  4. Drive through the whole foot and focus on pushing the floor away.
  5. Return to the starting position and repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

same as normal deep squat but rest dumbbells on your shoulders while in squat position and extend your arms fully while you go up in a standing position.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | vertical Target: Deltoid (Medial) Synergist(s): Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

The conventional, narrow-grip barbell upright row tends to be quite stressful on many client’s shoulders. A much better alternative is to use a cable, elastic or dumbbell which allows the wrists to adjust to a client’s body shape, as well as limiting how high you bring the weight.

  1. Grasp a rope attachment that is attached to a low pulley with a pronated (palms facing your thighs) grip that is slightly less than shoulder width. The rope will start near the top of your thighs. Your arms should be extended with a slight bend at the elbows and your back should be straight. This will be your starting position.
  2. Lift the rope up as you exhale, ensuring the rope remains close to the body as you move it up. Continue to lift it until your hand reach chest height.
    • Tip: Your elbows should drive the motion. As you lift the bar, your elbows should always be higher than your forearms. Also, keep your torso stationary and pause for a second at the top of the movement.
  3. Lower the rope back down slowly to the starting position. Inhale as you perform this portion of the movement.
  4. Repeat for the recommended amount of repetitions.

Caution: Don’t be too quick to increase to heavy loading with this exercise (as it is more stressful on the shoulders).

Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Deltoid (Posterior), Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

This exercise can be done half kneeling, tall kneeling, or standing (split or straight stance).

High-to Low Set up

Grasp handle or rope from shoulder height cable pulley (or slightly higher). Feet should be positioned slightly wider than shoulder width, with a slight bend in the knees. Turn towards cable stack until outside arm is nearly extended straight.

Execution

Keeping outside arm straight and core engaged, pull handle/rope diagonally downward around shoulders by rotating torso and gradually lowering arms downward. In order to allow rotation to happen, pivot on your back foot (foot closest to cable stack), allowing hips to turn. Bring the handle down towards hip height, which should require a slight bend of the knees. Slowly return the handle/rope to original position and repeat for desired number of repetitions. Continue with opposite side.

Low-to-High

Set the cable stack to a low position near the bottom of the stack. Starting with feet a little wider than shoulder width and knees slightly bent, grasp handle and extend your outside arm.

Execution

Keeping outside arm straight and core engaged, pull handle/rope diagonally upwards around your body by rotating torso, ensuring you are actively involving the muscles of the legs and hips. In order to allow rotation to happen, pivot on your back foot (foot closest to cable stack), allowing hips to turn. Keep your arms extended throughout the motion (particularly the outside arm), bring the handle up to shoulder-height. Slowly return the handle/rope to original position (by maintaining a wide arc) and repeat for desired number of repetitions. Continue with opposite side

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hip Abductors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hip Adductors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Hip Abductors Synergist(s): Gluteals, Quadriceps
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Lateral Lunge Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand in an upright position with your feet together and arms at your sides.
  2. Step laterally and sit back into your hip while you extend your opposite leg.
  3. Push back to your starting position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Trapezius Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a standing position with the dumbbells on both sides of your body.
  2. Hinge forward, inhale, and grab the dumbbells with a neutral grip.
  3. Stand up tall and ensure your spine remains neutral.
  4. Contract the traps to elevate the shoulders. Squeeze hard at the top and slowly lower the dumbbells back to the starting position.
  5. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Gastrocnemius Synergist(s): Soleus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Adjust the shoulder pad corresponding to your height.
  2. Step underneath the pad and place the hills of your feet on the platform with your toes pointed in – your heels will naturally hang off.
  3. Extend the hips and knees in order to raise the shoulder pad.
  4. Lower the heels by dorsiflexing the ankles until the calves are fully stretched.
  5. Extend the ankles and exhale as you flex the calves.
  6. Repeat for the assigned number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Soleus Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Standing Calf Raise
Key Teaching Points
  1. Take a seat on the machine and place the balls of your feet on the platform with your toes pointed in – your heels will naturally hang off. Position the base of quads under the knee pad and allow your hands to rest on top.
  2. Extend your ankles and release the safety bar.
  3. Lower the heels by dosiflexing ankles until the calves are fully stretched.
  4. Extend the ankles and exhale as you flex the calves.
  5. Repeat for the assigned number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Gastrocnemius Synergist(s): Soleus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand with the balls of your feet on the edge of the step/block and let your heels drop down as far as possible. This is the starting position for the movement.
  2. Slowly raise your heels up as high as possible.
  3. Pause, and then slowly lower your heels back to the starting position.
  4. Do not rest at the bottom, and immediately start the next rep.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Hip Abductors
Exercise
Regressions: Single Leg Bridge Progressions: Trap Bar Deadlift
Key Teaching Points

Consider a self spotting option by placing dowel (wall, chair) in hand opposite to leg on the ground.  Maintain an upright and neutral spine and head.  Lower like a ‘bobbing bird’ keeping the back leg, spine and head in a straight line.  Lower until you feel tension in the posterior structures of the leg.  Slowly come back up by engaging the gluts and hamstrings and continuing to maintain a straight line as described above.

Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Rounded lower back | Foot/ankle collapse
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Lie on floor face down and position hands on floor. With toes on floor, push body up with arms extended and body straight.

Execution

Lower body to floor and immediately push body up as fast as possible. As the hands leave ground, rapidly clap hands together and place back to original position, catching body before it falls. Repeat.

Advanced variations

  • Clap push-ups: Have a client attempt to clap their hands between each push-up.
  • Plyometric depth push-up: Set up two boxes or steps outside of the athlete’s hands. Have athlete explode up out of the push-up and land both hands on the boxes. Then exploding off the boxes, land back on the ground.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Hip Flexors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

same as treadmill but client has to climb stairs on different speeds.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Sit on seat with chest approximately height of horizontal handles.

 

Press lever until arms are extended. Return weight until chest muscles are slightly stretched. Repeat.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Adductors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat Progressions: Back Squat
Key Teaching Points
  1. Load the machine with the desired weight and position your shoulders and back against the pads.
  2. Position your feet outside of shoulder width, extend your legs, and release the safety handles.
  3. Slowly lower the weight by bending your knees until your thighs are approximately at 90 degrees.
  4. Reverse the movement by driving into the platform and extending the knees and hips.
  5. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Biceps Synergist(s): Brachialis, Brachioradialis
Exercise
Regressions: Alternating Biceps Curls Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Sit in an upright position with your chest flat against the preacher bench.
  2. Keep your upper arm pressed into the pad and use a supinated (palms facing up) grip.
  3. Take a deep breath and slowly lower the bar away from your shoulder.
  4. Once the bicep is fully lengthened, curl the weight back to the starting position.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Transverse Abdominus, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Bottoms Up Carry
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start with a neutral spine, with the core engaged.
  2. Grip the dumbbells as tightly as you can.
  3. Start walking with a relatively short stride (12-18″), this will provide a stronger support base.
  4. Avoid craning your neck or looking side to side; keep your ears directly over your shoulders and hips.
  5. Walk for as long as possible until grip fails. Ideally, this exercise should be performed in a space where it is safe to drop the weights to the floor if necessary.

Variations

  • Suitcase Farmer’s Walk: Hold a dumbbell on one side.
  • Trap Bar Farmer’s Walk: Use a trap bar to allow for increased loading and less likelihood of the weights banging your leg.

 

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge, Lower Body Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Lying Leg Curl | Seated Leg Curl Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

1. Lie supine on floor with lower legs on exercise ball, arms extended out to sides.
2. Straighten low back, knees, and hips, raising back and hips off of floor.
3. Keeping hips and low back straight, bend knees, pulling heels toward rear end (allow feet to roll up on to ball).
4. Pause, then lower to original position.

Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Pec Major, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Push Up Progressions: Bench Press
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start on all fours with feet hip width apart and feet shoulder width apart
  2. Push hips into the air to while maintaining a flat back and straight legs
  3. Lower your hips and chest to the floor while maintaining straight legs (your chest should skim the floor)
  4. Finish with your head up in spinal extension
  5. Hold for a count and reverse the movment into starting position for one repetition
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Gluteals, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Plank Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start in a low plank position with your body in a straight line, your elbows bent and under your shoulders and your feet hip-width apart.
  2. Lift your left leg to a 45-degree angle and hold.
  3. Switch legs and repeat.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Deltoid (Posterior), Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Begin in a plank position with your weight resting on your forearms and your body in a completely straight line from your shoulders to your ankles.
  2. Tighten your abs and without letting your hips shift, raise one arm out straight in front of you.
  3. Pause, then lower it back to the starting position.

 

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Arching the upper back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set the feet in the squat stance.
  2. Be sure to find the correct placement of the barbell in the crooks of the elbows
  3. With the feet set and the torso upright, push the hips back and squat down, allowing the elbows to travel downwards inside the knees.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

 

  1. Keep tension on the quads, keep the knees just shy of lockout.
  2. In order to emphasize the glutes more, push through the heels.
  3. In order to emphasize the quads more, push through the balls of the feet.
  4. Don’t allow the hips to posteriorly tilt and roll off the pad.
  5. Keep your low back flat against the pad throughout the movement.
  6. Maintain a neutral head position by not looking up or down excessively.

 

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Latissimus Dorsi, Rectus Abdominus, Spinal Erectors, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Wave

  1. For this exercise you will need a heavy rope anchored at its center 15-20 feet away. Standing in front of the rope, take an end in each hand with your arms extended at your side. This will be your starting position.
  2. Initiate the movement by rapidly raising one arm to shoulder level as quickly as you can.
  3. As you let that arm drop to the starting position, raise the opposite side.
  4. Continue alternating your left and right arms, whipping the ropes up and down as fast as you can.

Variations

Slam: Lift both ends of the rope overhead, and then slam the rope down with full force onto the ground. Make sure to maintain good posture. This move engages your shoulders, arms, back, and core, especially your abs.

Claps: Move your arms in and out like you’re clapping your hands together.

 

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Soleus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Grasp a jump rope with the handles at your sides and the rope behind your heels.
  2. Rotate the wrists to generate velocity and help the rope revolve around the body.
  3. As the rope moves toward your feet, hop with one foot to allow it to pass underneath.
  4. Once the rope has passed underneath, you’ll jump again with the same foot before hopping the rope with opposite foot on the next pass.
  5. Repeat steps 4 & 5 for the desired number of repetitions or time.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Hip Flexors, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: BOSU Mountain Climber
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a plank pushup position with your hands underneath your shoulders.
  2. Drive one knee towards your elbow until the hip reaches 90 degrees of flexion.
  3. Slowly return to the starting position and repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | flexion Target: Quadratus Lumborum Synergist(s): Obliques, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Spinal Erectors, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Power Clean
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, arms at your sides and toes pointed out at about a 30-degree angle. Place a dumbbell just in front of the area between your feet.
  2. Bend into a squat and grab the dumbbell with a pronated grip (maintaining a straight arm). Keep your back straight, abs tight and knees behind your toes as you squat.
  3. Stand straight up with an explosive motion, driving the movement with your hips. Begin to bring the dumbbell to shoulder height as you rise.
  4. “Catch” the dumbbell at your shoulder.
  5. Pause to re-set (and turn the grip to neutral).
  6. Then drop into quarter squat before driving the dumbbell overhead.
  7. Bring the dumbbell back to shoulder height (using a neutral grip), then lower the dumbbell back to the ground. Perform your next rep with the other arm, changing arms with each repetition.

N.B. If you prefer to do all your reps with a single-arm, start with your non-dominant arm first.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Deltoid (Posterior), Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a hinged position with your knees slightly bent, one hand on the kettlebell handle, chin tucked, and weight centered over your foot. Utilize your free hand to help assist with balance.
  2. Begin the movement by hiking the kettlebell between your legs and keeping your spine neutral.
  3. Drive the kettlebell back to the starting position by extending the hips, pushing through the floor, and keeping the arms straight.
  4. Repeat the movement for the desired number of repetitions on both sides.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Quadriceps, Quadratus Lumborum
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart and knees slightly bent.
  2. Raise a dumbbell/kettle overhead with one hand.
  3. Keep your arm fully extended, making sure the elbow is locked out and the shoulder blade is packed.
    • You should not be shrugging your shoulder up by your ear.
  4. Once you are comfortable with your packed shoulder position and upright in your posture, begin to walk.
  5. Walk for recommended number of steps or time. Switch arms each set.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Deltoid (Posterior), Hip Flexors, Quadratus Lumborum, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Windmill Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. To perform the move, stand with your feet hip-distance apart.
  2. Bend down to pick up the kettlebell from the floor using your left hand; use your hips to clean it up so it’s extended above your shoulder.
  3. Keep the kettlebell straight over your shoulder as you hinge forward from your hips to touch your left foot with your left hand.
  4. Return to a standing position to complete one repetition.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s): Gluteals, Latissimus Dorsi, Wrist Flexor, Wrist Extensor
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s): Gluteals, Quadriceps, Wrist Flexor, Wrist Extensor
Exercise
Regressions: Pull Through Progressions: Deadlift
Key Teaching Points
  1. Load a trap bar, also known as a hex bar, to an appropriate weight resting on the ground.
  2. Stand in the center of the bar, then squat down slighty, look forward with your head and keep your chest up.
  3. Grip both handles, ensuring arms are tense.
  4. Begin the movement by driving through the heels and extend your hips and knees.
    • Avoid rounding your back at all times.
  5. At the completion of the movement, lower the weight back to the ground under control.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Rounded lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hip Abductors Synergist(s): IT Band
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position yourself on your hands and knees on the ground.
  2. Keeping the knee in a bent position, abduct the femur, moving your knee away from the midline of the body.
  3. Pause at the top of the motion, and then slowly return to the starting position.

Perform this slowly for a number of repetitions, and repeat on the other side.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Rhomboids Synergist(s): Serratus, Soleus, Spinal Erectors, Sternoclenomastoid, Suboccipitals, Tibialis Anterior, Transverse Abdominus, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Drop down on your hands and knees and place one hand at the back of your head.
  2. Rotate your upper body to the side with the elevated arm, twisting your chest to face that direction before returning back to the starting position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start standing with feet hip-width apart. Hinge forward at your hips and place your palms on the mat. You can bend your knees if needed to get your palms flat on the floor.
  2. Walk your hands forward so that you’re in high plank. Your shoulders should be stacked directly above your wrists
  3. Walk your hands back toward feet and stand up. That’s 1 rep
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Hip Adductors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Elbow-to-Instep Lunge

  1. Start with your feet together standing on a mat.
  2. Take a long lunge step with your right leg so that your left leg is fully extended behind you and your right leg forms a 90 degree angle. At the same time twist your core to the left so that your right elbow is near you right foot and your shoulder is next to your knee.
  3. Drive your hips to the floor, elongating that left leg. Hold this position for a few seconds.

Elbow-to-Instep Lunge with Rotation

  1. Start with your feet together standing on a mat.
  2. Take a long lunge step with your right leg so that your left leg is fully extended behind you and your right leg forms a 90 degree angle. At the same time twist your core to the left so that your right elbow is near you right foot and your shoulder is next to your knee.
  3. Drive your hips to the floor, elongating that left leg. Hold this position for a few seconds.
  4. Then, rotate your chest towards the sky and reach with your right hand extended leaving it pointed to the sky.
  5. Bring your arm down slowly, and return to standing position. Repeat with the other side.

Knee Hug to Forward Lunge – Elbow to Instep with Hamstrings Stretch

  1. Lift right knee to chest and grab below knee with hands
  2. Pull knee to chest while contracting left glute
  3. Step forward into lunge
  4. Place left hand on the ground and right elbow to the inside of the right foot, and hold stretch for two seconds
  5. Place right hand outside of foot and push hips to sky and hold for two seconds
  6. Drop hips, lift chest, and step into next stretch
  7. Continue for prescribed number of repetitions
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Deltoid (Posterior) Synergist(s): Rhomboids, Rotator Cuff
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Face Pull
Key Teaching Points
  1. Begin with your arms extended straight out in front of you, holding the band with both hands.
  2. Initiate the movement by performing a reverse fly motion, moving your hands out laterally to your sides.
  3. Keep your elbows extended as you perform the movement, bringing the band to your chest. Ensure that you keep your shoulders back during the exercise.
  4. Pause as you complete the movement, returning to the starting position under control.
Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Rhomboids Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start either prone with forehead supported, seated, or standing.
  2. Initiate movement by contracting rhomboids and middle trapezius and brining scapulae together.
  3. Resist the tendency to shrug and over recruit your upper trapezius.
  4. Avoid excessive back extension.  Movement should come from scapulae and arms only.
  5. Go through maximum allowable (pain free) range.
Common Error(s): Arching the upper back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat | Box Squat Progressions: Front Squat
Key Teaching Points
  • Set-Up: Once you have the barbell in position (in front of collarbone), squeeze your upper arms into your sides and maintain this position of your hands/arms throughout the movement.
  • Movement: Take a deep breath in, brace your core, and sit down between your heels (imagine pushing your knees out slightly). Don’t allow your torso to fall forward or round through the spine. Pause at the bottom of the squat, then drive back up to the starting position, emphasizing pushing off with the mid/back portion of your foot.

This variation can be great for taller lifter, or novice lifters who are just learning proper squatting mechanics.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Arching the upper back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Obliques, Transverse Abdominus, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a half kneeling position with the knee under your hip, toes tucked, and ribcage down.
  2. Shoulder the barbell in one hand and place your other hand on your ribcage to monitor spinal positioning.
  3. Once the barbell is in place, take a deep breath and press to lockout by extending the elbow and contracting the deltoid.
  4. Slowly lower the barbell back to the starting position on your shoulder and repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand on your left leg, one knee touching the other. You can hold a chair or the wall to keep you steady if needed.
  2. Grab your right foot, using your right hand, and pull it towards your butt. …
  3. Hold the position for 20 to 30 seconds, then repeat, switching from your left leg to your right.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Have client stand, holding onto something secure for balance. Instruct client to bend one leg behind them, while attempting to grasp their foot/ankle. Hold this position for 10-30 seconds, providing a gentle amount of resistance with your hand.

Then repeat with other leg.

Remind client to avoid holding their breath and that all stretches should be held to the point of mild tension, but never pain.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Gastrocnemius Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Standing 1-2 feet away from a wall with your arms braced against it, put one foot forward so that the forefoot (toes) is in contact with the wall and the heel is in contact with the floor. Keeping your leg straight, push your hips forward and gently hold this position to the point of mild tension.

Hold 10-30 sec, then repeat with other leg.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Sit on the floor with both legs out straight.
  2. Extend your arms and reach forward by bending at the waist as far as possible while keeping your knees straight.
  3. Hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds.
  4. Relax back into the starting position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start facing a doorway with feet shoulder width apart.
  2. Then bring up your arm to the door frame, grasping it at shoulder height
    and parallel to the floor.
  3. After holding a firm grasp to the door frame, sink down slowly into the
    stretch by keeping the head down and the butt out.

Note: Make sure that when coming out of this stretch that you come up
slowly, to prevent injuring the shoulder.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Pec Major Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Stand at end of wall or in doorway facing perpendicular to wall. Place inside of bent arm on surface of wall. Position bent elbow shoulder height.

Execution

Turn body away from positioned arm. Hold stretch. Repeat with opposite arm. N.B. You can target upper fibres of the pect major by keeping the elbow lower. The fibres of the lower part of pec major and pectoralis minor are more effectively stretched with elbow higher.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Lie flat on your back, with both knees slightly bent. Taking your right leg, pull your leg up to you chest. Wrap your arms around your knee/shin and gently pull the knee towards your chest. Hold for 10-20 seconds and slowly extend the leg to starting position.

Repeat with other leg.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Rectus Abdominus Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Starting Position: Lie prone (on your stomach) with your hands positioned directly under your shoulders.

Movement Phase: Push your torso upwards, pressing your hips into the mat while gently exhaling. Keep the shoulders from rolling forward by actively retracting the scapula (pulled back). Hold this position for 15 – 30 seconds. Then slowly lower yourself back to the starting position.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hip Flexors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Brachialis, Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Bent-Over Row | Inverted Row
Key Teaching Points

Feet shoulder width apart.
Band tubing secured under medial arch of foot. Even pressure under feet to ensure band is secure.
Cross band technique for additional security.
Hinge at hips, slight bend in knees, keep spine neutral including maintaining a flat back, slight lumbar curve and neutral (not forward) head position.
Initiate row by retracting scapulae as you bring arms back.

Common Error(s): Rounded shoulders | Rounded lower back | Forward Head Posture
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Deltoid (Posterior) Synergist(s): Rhomboids, Trapezius, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Reverse Pec Deck
Key Teaching Points

Anchor band to secure structure at chest height. Feet shoulder width apart, knees slightly flexed, and core engage. Keep arms extended but slightly flexed. Engage rear deltoid as your move hands backwards. Careful to keep head and spine neutral. Resist forward heal movement. Stay balanced.

Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Not engaging core
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Chest Press | Push Up
Key Teaching Points

Whether seated or standing ensure a stable base and neutral spine. Resist the tendency to lurch the head forward. Remain upright and neutral. Relax the shoulders. Do not round or shrug shoulders. Grip should be neutral and comfortable. Elbow position near the body yet comfortable. Engage through the chest and triceps and push forward in a controlled fashion as described in the chest press exercise. The core must remain engaged to ensure upright posture is maintained.

Common Error(s): Rounded shoulders | Forward Head Posture
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior)
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Fly
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set band around sturdy object anchored to the floor
  2. Stand far enough forward to put an appropriate amount of tension on the resistance band
  3. With a slight bend in the elbows, horizontally adduct the shoulders to your centre line
Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Not engaging core | Rounded shoulders
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Pull | vertical Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Lat Pulldown | Inverted Row
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position the wheelchair/chair at appropriate distance.  Secure wheelchair by locking brakes.
  2. Remove arm rests +/- foot pedals if preferred.  Do not remove arm rests and foot pedals without a spotter for clients will limited trunk and lower limb control.
  3. Carefully hand off lat bar to client.
  4. Grasp the handle with a pronated grip (double overhand).  Secure grip if grasping issues (e.g. active hands).
  5. Slightly lean back.
  6. Initiate the movement by depressing the shoulder blade and then flexing the elbow while extending the shoulder.
  7. Pull the handle towards your body until the elbows are in line with your torso and then slowly lower the handle back to the starting position under control.  Engage core throughout movement.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Forward Head Posture
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Biceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Biceps Curl | Concentration Curl
Key Teaching Points

Feet shoulder width apart. Band under arch/groove of foot. Even foot pressure to keep band secure. Upright strong and neutral posture. Palms up. Hands at side in comfortable position. Elbows tight to trunk. Engage upward motion with biceps contraction through full range.

Common Error(s): Rounded shoulders | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Skullcrusher | Triceps Extension | Pushdown
Key Teaching Points
  1. Whilst keeping your elbows close to your stomach and shoulders pinned back, grip the bar with a pronated grip (palms facing downwards) shoulder width apart. Your feet should be positioned relatively close whilst your knees are allowed a slight bend also.
  2. Leaning slightly forwards, exhale your breath and push the bar down using only your triceps until the bar hits your hip/upper thigh region. At this point, the arms should be fully extended and there should be considerable stress or tension placed on the triceps muscle.
  3. Throughout the movement, your shoulders and arms should be still and the forearms should be the only muscle group moving.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Not engaging core | Forward Head Posture
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deltoid (Medial) Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Assisted Lateral Shoulder Raise Progressions: Lateral Shoulder Raise
Key Teaching Points
  1. Band secure under arch/groove of midfoot.
  2. Even foot pressure to secure band.
  3. Upright and neutral posture.
  4. Resist bending forward at hips and extending backward to create trunk momentum. Rather, keep spine neutral and core engage and initiate movement via lateral deltoid contraction.
  5. The full range will be slightly above horizontal and pain-free.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Forward Head Posture
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hip Abductors
Exercise
Regressions: Sit-to-Stand Squat Progressions: Front Squat
Key Teaching Points
  1. Create a closed loop band (i.e. place a knot in the band) at a length that is snug when the client’s knees are close together.
  2. This closed loop band can be created first and then have the client carefully step into the loop and move it into position around the knees OR have the client sit down on a chair/bench and tie the knot while the band is in place.
  3. The band should be placed just above the knee.  Special caution should be taken so that the band does not ride up or down and/or rub harshly on the ski.  Therabend works the best to avoid this.
  4. Assume a normal foot (approx. or slightly wider than shoulder width) squatting position, however, first engage hip abductors with a special focus on glut activation to abduct the hips so that the knees are aligned with the feet.  This will require an isometric contraction to hold the knees in proper alignment.
  5. While holding hip abduction complete a squat using proper form.
Common Error(s): Valgus knees
Spotting: Spotting Squats
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Pelvic Floor, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Bird Dog Progressions: Plank with Arm Extension | Stability Ball Pike
Key Teaching Points
  1. The band must be anchored securely. Feet shoulder width apart.
  2. Fix the trunk, hips, and head neutral and facing forward. Engage the core.
  3. With arms straight out in front and both hands together rotate through the arms and shoulders while your core tries to remain forward. Try to maximize rotational range without losing engaged core.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Pelvic Floor, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Bird Dog Progressions: Barbell Rotation | Medicine Ball Rotational Throws
Key Teaching Points

Feet shoulder width apart. Upright and neutral posture. Engage core and remain in good posture. Hands together gripping band or cable. Band or cable pull is perpendicular to your starting position. Complete sets on both sides.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Hip Bridge Progressions: Leg Curl
Key Teaching Points

Seated upright. Place chair or wheelchair at appropriate distance for even load/desired resistance.  Secure chair or wheelchair (i.e. lock brakes).  Anchor band or cable around lower limp at ankle at one end and attach to secure structure at the other end.  Use dog lead loops for bands.  Use a properly secured (i.e. clip in both metal rings) ankle strap.   In a controlled manor allow the leg to extend at the knee. Once the resistance has slackened, engage the core, gluts and hamstring and pull the heel back through full range. Slowly return.  If possible adjust the seat height or anchor height to minimize hip flexor involvement.

Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Leg Extension | Back Squat
Key Teaching Points

Seated upright on a sturdy chair or bench. Anchor the band both around the lower leg/ankle and at another secure and stable location. Consider using the other leg as the anchor in situations where another suitable anchor is not possible. Engage the quadriceps and extend at the knee through full range.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Pre-Exercise

  • Complete client prescreening
  • Calculate 85% of client’s HR max and divide by 4 to get that data in a 15s count for easy comparison
  • Have your loading for workload #2 chart handy with the heart rates converted to 15s count for easy comparison.
  • Explain purpose of test
  • Instruct the client to maintain a cadence of 50 rpm
  • Explain that each stage will be approximately 3 minutes long, and they will get progressively harder
  • Explain to the client that each minute you will get their heart rate and you will start to prepare for that at about 20 seconds to the minute.
  • Explain the purpose of the BORG scale and let the client know that you will ask for that information for each stage
  • Remind your client that you will be watching for their safety, but they should let you know if they feel pain or if they need to stop the test for any reason
  • Instruct client to begin cycling at 50 rpm
  • Set the cycle ergometer to 0.5 KP (25 Watts) for the first workload

During Exercise

  • Monitor client
  • Properly encourage client
  • Help client keep accurate cadence
  • Accurately obtain heart rate each minute and RPE each stage
  • Use a fourth minute for a workload when steady state is not achieved (compare minutes 2 and 3)
  • Use the chart and appropriately change the resistance for workload #2
  • Increase the resistance for each subsequent workload by 25Watts or 0.5 KP when the client is cycling at 50 rpm
  • Complete a minimum of 3 workloads with two workloads within the appropriate zone (110 bpm – 85% HRmax)
  • Stop assessment when appropriate

Post-Exercise

  • Provide active recovery (easy cycling or walking) for 3-5minutes
  • Check HR every minute for 3-5 minutes
  • Have your client sit for at least 3-5 minutes
  • Check HR every minute
  • Check BP on minute 1 and 3 (and possibly 5)
  • Ensure HR and BP are below ceiling values
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Plank Progressions: TRX Plank | TRX Mountain Climber
Key Teaching Points

Same set-up as traditional plank.  Careful attention on establishing proper position and engaging the core musculature to secure that position as an unstable surface requires additional abdominal effort.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Obliques, Pec Major, Rectus Abdominus, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Push Up Progressions: TRX Spiderman Push-Up
Key Teaching Points

Same set up as typical push up.  Careful attention to initial set-up of hand position as surface is unstable.  Do your best to place hands in a neutral position while remaining secure.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Forward Head Posture | Sagging lower back
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings, Quadratus Lumborum, Rectus Abdominus, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Walking Lunge | Split Squat Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Same neutral setup as seen with a split squat lunge.  Knees at 90 degrees.  Upright and neutral posture.  About shoulder width or slightly less foot spacing.  Carefully place back leg on stability ball with foot plantar flexed.  Consider using a wall, chair, dowel or spotter to initiate and exit the position safely.  Lower in a controlled manner.  The range will often be limited by tight hip flexors/quads in the back leg.  Use quads/gluts/hams to drive back upwards.  This motions should be within pain free range.

Common Error(s): Valgus knees
Spotting: Travel alongside client
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Plank | Mountain Climber Progressions: Stability Ball Pike | TRX Mountain Climber
Key Teaching Points

Similar hand position set-up to push up (hands on bosu black).  Make sure core is engage.  Establish a proper plank/staring push-up position with stable neutral hand grip and spine position.  Alternate bringing one knee up towards the elbow of the same side and then the other knee, and repeat.  Make sure core is engaged and position remains neutral.  The speed can be picked up once good form is established.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Foot Arch, Gastrocnemius, Gluteals, Hamstrings, Hip Abductors, Hip Adductors, Rectus Abdominus, Soleus
Exercise
Regressions: Wall Squat Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Same set up as a standard body weight squat plus carefully establish staring and exit positions as surface is unstable.  Consider using a wall, chair, dowel or spotter to help obtain the initial position.

Common Error(s): Valgus knees | Foot/ankle collapse
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Core | extension, Core | rotation, Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Gluteals, Rectus Abdominus, Rhomboids, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Bird Dog Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Same position as the bird dog plus the added balance necessary to remain stable on the stability ball.  Maintain good spine posture, especially of the head and neck, allowing the opposing arm and leg to elevate to maximum range without losing neutral posture or over arching lower back.  During the entire movement keep the core engaged.  Spotters stay close and at client level.

Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Sagging lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Pelvic Floor
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Bird Dog
Key Teaching Points

While lying supine on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor place either a BP cuff or folded towel in the small of your back directly beneath your navel point.  When using a BP cuff make sure the pressure reads approximately 80 mmHg when lying on it at rest.  While still breathing imagine drawing your belly button towards your spine.  Your abdomen should depress downwards rather than expand upwards.  Also pull up from your pelvic floor by initiating the muscles that stop urine flow.  When done correctly the pressure on the towel / BP cuff should remain the same or go up slightly; 10-15mmHg (not go down or up significantly) while maintaining a neutral spine and breathing.

Clients can start by completing 10-15 hold/relax reps.  Then progress to holding for 10 seconds.  Finally, alternating leg lifts while holding the contraction.  Once this is completed successfully clients should be progressed and encouraged to use their intrinsic core during regular exercises.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Gait Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Pre-Exercise

  • Complete client pre-screening
  • Calculate 85% of client’s HR max and divide by 4 to get that data in a 15s count for easy comparison
  • Calculate 50% and 70% of client’s HR max (warm-up range) and divide by 4 to get that data in a 15s count for easy comparison
  • Explain purpose of test
  • Discuss your client’s current experience with CV training to determine a starting speed for the treadmill.
  • Explain that the warm-up will be 4 minutes at no incline, followed by a 5 minute exercise session at 5% incline.
  • Explain to the client that each minute you will get their heart rate and that you would like them to step off the treadmill for that.
  • Explain the purpose of the BORG scale and let the client know that you will ask for that information a couple of times
  • Orient the client to the equipment and determine their comfort with stepping off of the treadmill
  • Remind your client that you will be watching for their safety, but they should let you know if they feel pain or if they need to stop the test for any reason
  • Start the treadmill between 2.0 and 4.5 mph and have the client step on after the belt is moving.

During Exercise

  • Monitor client
  • Properly encourage client
  • Accurately obtain heart rate each minute and RPE each stage
  • From the first heart rate reading determine an appropriate walking speed. Change the speed if necessary following the second heart rate reading (during warm-up)
  • Increase the incline to 5.0% after 4 minutes of warm-up
  • Continue to monitor heart rate every minute
  • Use the fifth minute of a workload when steady state is not achieved (compare minutes 3 and 4 of workload)

Post-Exercise

  • Provide active recovery (easy walking) for 3-5minutes
  • Check HR every minute for 3-5 minutes
  • Have your client sit for at least 3-5 minutes
  • Check HR every minute
  • Check BP on minute 1 and 3 (and possibly 5)
  • Ensure HR and BP are below ceiling values
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Rhomboids, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position wheelchair/chair at a distance a little farther away than client’s full elbow extension while holding cable handles/v bar.
  2. Secure the wheelchair by locking brakes.  Have the client sit upright at the front of the wheel chair.  Remove arm rests +/- foot pedals if preferred.  Do not remove arm rests or foot pedals without a spotter if poor trunk or lower limb control.
  3. While engaging the core and maintaining upright spine and head posture/alignment have the client pull the load towards their abdomen.  Shoulder should be back.  Chest up.
  4. Return under control.  This should be done in a slow and controlled fashion.  Their inner core should remain engaged throughout the exercise while still remembering to breath.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Rounded shoulders
Spotting: Cables
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: | Sit-to-Stand Squat
Key Teaching Points

Secure ankle straps around both ankles.  Seated upright.  Place one foot securely on the floor (or foot pedal if wheelchair is being used).  Raise the opposite foot until the knee is full extended.  Engage the quadriceps muscle as you extend the leg.  Make sure wheelchair brakes are engaged.  Adjust foot pedals as required.

Common Error(s): Bouncing Weights
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Triceps Kickback Progressions: Dips
Key Teaching Points

Seated upright.  Carefully place DB overhead.  Use help of trainer if available.  Secure DB by holding DB handle tightly within overlapping hands.  Start with elbows flexed.  Initiate movement by engaging the triceps as you extend the elbows.  Remain upright.  Careful not to allow the DB to contact the head.  Control the movement back down to the starting position.  Spot at the wrists of the client.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

As tolerated.  While seated upright in wheelchair or arm chair with feet secured and flat on foot pedals or floor.  Wheelchair brakes engaged or chair secure against the wall.  The client engages the triceps muscles by putting pressure through the hands that are on the arm of the chair.  The client attempts to lift up as tolerated while minimizing the assistance from the legs.  Slowly return back to a fully seated position.  The range of motion may be limited depending on strength.  Even an isometric contraction is considered beneficial.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Same instructions as band under arms chest press.  But in this situation you secure the dowel end of the gym stick behind the back of the wheelchair.  Once in place you can press forward with the handles.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Seated upright with slight backwards lean while still maintaining balance.  Engage intrinsic core muscles.  While holding medicine ball in hands slowly rotate from site to side while maintaining core contraction.  Move hands farther away from the body to increase intensity.  There should be no lower back pain.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Adductors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

1. Seated upright at front edge of chair with feet secure on floor.

2. Place appropriately sized stability ball between the knee/thighs.

3. In a controlled manner squeeze inwards (i.e. bring knees together) by engaging hip adductors.

4. Slowly release and repeat.  Caution:  allow a few lower intensity sets to warm-up the groin area before increasing intensity.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Abductors Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

1. Seated upright at the front of your chair.  Secure a fixed loop band just above the knees at the thigh.

2. Engage the hip abductors (lateral leg muscles) and pull the band apart.

3. Slowly return back and repeat.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Seated Row
Key Teaching Points

Using the dog loop band tying technique create two dog loops with theraband sheeting.  Wrap around a secure anchor so two looped (mini handle) ends are available.  Slide hand through the open loop and then wrap the band once more around the wrist so that the band is secure without requiring your client to grip the band.  Proceed with band rowing technique and form.

Common Error(s): Rounded shoulders
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Either in standing or seated.  Wrap a theraband dog loop knot or tubing handle around the wrist and into the web of the palm of the and to ensure a secure grip for those that have issues gripping/grasping.  Follow instructions for band chest press.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Deltoid (Posterior) Synergist(s): Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Create a dog loop with theraband.  Secure for clients with gripping/grasping weakness by placing loop around wrist and wrapping a few extra times.  Once band is secure proceed with Band reverse fly technique.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Sit-to-Stand Squat Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Place a dowel (or chair/wall) on the side of the leg that is in the air to act as a self spotter if required.  Squat downward on one leg allowing the opposite leg to drift backwards while maintaining a neutral spine and a strong core.  Try to reach a 90 degree knee bend in the squatting leg before returning to the top.  A slight forward lean (and therefore additional gluteal contraction) in order to maintain balance is allowed.  Active quads, gluts, the core and ankle stabilizers during the movement.

Common Error(s): Foot/ankle collapse | Valgus knees | Not engaging core
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Same set up as cable row with extra emphasis on engaging intrinsic core to prevent trunk rotation as well as focusing on scapular retraction, especially of the arm that has no load.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Rounded shoulders
Spotting: Cables
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Seated Leg Curl Progressions: Leg Curl
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lying supine with knees between 70-90 degrees flexion.
  2. One foot flat on floor the other leg extended and in line with the thigh of the support leg.
  3. Bridge upwards by engaging hamstrings/gluts.
  4. Raise unsupported leg to lower intensity.  Lower unsupported leg to increase intensity.
  5. Try to maintain neutral postures (i.e. don’t over arch back or allow opposite hip to drop).
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Arching the upper back
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Pelvic Floor Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

While seated upright on stability ball with good posture engage the pelvic floor muscles by drawing inwards and upwards from the anus while engaging the muscles that stop urine flow.  Continue to breath during this activity.  Hold and relax repetitions of 5 to 10 seconds are recommended.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Gluteals, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Bird Dog | Stability Ball Bird Dog
Key Teaching Points

While Standing upright (with a sturdy chair, dowel or trainer for spotting purposes) extend one arm and the opposite leg to obtain the bird dog position.  Engage the core and resist excessive low back extension.  Keep head, neck and spine aligned.  Return to original staring position and repeat with other arm and leg.

Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Quadriceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Similar to a body weight squat while allowing for a wider stance and greater external rotation of the foot to enable a deeper squatting motion and maximal hip range/clearance.  Focus on hip range of motion.  Engage glut muscles at lower range to aid in upward squatting motion.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Spotting Squats
Movement Pattern: Pull | vertical Target: Trapezius Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

With hands fully supinated and at side shrug upwards engaging your trapezius muscles while elevating your shoulders upwards and backwards towards the posterior part of the head.  Try to resist excessive forward head movement.  Remain upright with neutral posture throughout movement.

Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Biceps, Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Grasp the long bar with a wider-than-shoulder-width grip and slide your bottom backward until your knees are almost straight.
  2. Pull the bar to your abdomen.
  3. Pull your shoulders back and stick out your chest at the top of the movement.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Kneel on mat or floor. Place hands shoulder width apart.

Execution

Flex spine by hunching back up. Extend spine by arching back. Repeat.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization, Gait, Whole Body Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hip Flexors, Quadriceps, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

See video.  Start on hands and toes with knees just slightly off the ground.  Take a strong core engaged position.  Actively engage core.  Resist excessive side to side rocking.  Alternate hand and leg move together.  Movement can be completed forward, backward and side to side.  Place an object (e.g. small cone or water bottle) on back to ensure client isn’t rocking too much as the object would fall off if they were.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Hip Flexors, Obliques, Quadriceps, Rectus Abdominus, Transverse Abdominus, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Push Up Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

See Video.  Starting in push-up position with core engaged.  Move forward by stepping alternate arm and leg in together.  During this contralateral movement pattern touch moving legs knee to non-moving arms elbow and complete a partial push-up motion.  Repeat.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Hip Flexors, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

See video.  Ensure gym stick or TRX rip trainer is anchored properly above shoulder height.  Core engaged.  No excessive momentum when bringing band back to starting position.  Explode through the shot with core engaged.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Back Extensors stretch, seated, with partner

  • Can do folding over while sitting on a chair or sitting on the table
  • Trainer positions self behind client to offer resistance to the isometric contraction of back with arms, resisting client’s attempt to extend spine. Do not place pressure with hands directly on spine (pressure on either side or across full back with forearms).
  • Hold isometric contraction against trainer’s arms for 6 seconds.
  • Relax back, flex spine, deepen the stretch slowly.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
  • Trainer can move pressure to different areas of back (higher/lower)
  • When engaging in any partner PNF, communication about pain/discomfort it crucial. Position the mirror to see the client’s face and pain should not be felt during the movement.

Back Extensors self-stretch, seated, with towel

  • Fold over chair with towel wrapped around back.
  • Provide resistance against isometric contraction with towel (resist attempt to extend spine).
  • Hold isometric contraction for 6 seconds
  • Relax back, flex spine, deepen the stretch slowly.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 second depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
  • Move towel higher and lower on back.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Gastrocnemius Synergist(s): Peroneals, Soleus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

While standing upright lift yourself completely onto your toes by engaging your calf musculature.  Although it is recommended to have a spotting option close by (e.g. counter or chair) try to resist holding on in order to challenge ankle stability and balance.  Progress to one leg when able.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Gait Target: Peroneals Synergist(s): Foot Arch, Gastrocnemius, Pelvic Floor, Soleus, Tibialis Anterior, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

While maintaining an upright posture walk slowly heel to toe as seen in the picture above.  Make sure to have a spotting option close by, however, try to resist grabbing a hold unless required to challenge balance systems.  Regressions involve looking down at feet or having hands out to the side.  Progressions involve not looking down or having hands crossed in front.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Abductors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Standing upright.  Using a spot (e.g. chair or countertop) to stabilize support leg.  Secure ankle weight around the lifting leg.  While maintaining good posture engage the lateral thigh / hip musculature and raise the leg away from the body.  Control the movement as the leg returns to the starting position.  Repeat.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Gait, Whole Body Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gluteals, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Start seated on gluts with hands behind you and feet flat on the floor.  Bridge up through pelvis so that you are in a dip type position with the weight distributed through the hands and heels.  Adjust hand position to avoid and watch out for wrist pain.  Walk backwards by using alternate arm and leg together.  Engage hamstrings and triceps to aid in movement.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Piriformis
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Keep and upright and neutral spine/posture while seated.  Cross one leg over the other.  Apply light pressure on the upper knee to ensure leg is flat/horizontal.  Lean forward from the chest while maintaining good posture.  Stretch should be felt in piriformis area.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Gastrocnemius Synergist(s): Soleus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Seated upright in chair.  Secure (safely) strap or towel around foot.  Maximize dorsiflexion at the ankle with assistance from the strap to stretch the gastrocnemius (knee straight/fully extended) and soleus (knee bent).

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

While seated near edge of chair maintain an upright and neutral spine/posture.  Keep the extended knee fully straight.  Lean forward, leading with your chest and maintaining a lumbar curve and neutral pelvis.  Lead with chest, not the chin.  Anteriorly tilt the pelvis to intensity the stretch.  Special care should be taken for clients with balance issues.  Foot pedals should be removed for clients using a wheelchair.

Common Error(s): Forward Head Posture | Rounded lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

See picture above.  Remember to breath.  Deepen the stretch by tucking the chin and/or extending your arms towards the ground.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior)
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

While standing or seated grip the dowel (or stretching strap) widely.  Slowly extend arms overhead with elbows extended.  Engage your core so that your rib cage does not rise up and maintain a neutral pelvis.  The stretch should be within the anterior chest.  There should be NO pain in the back of the shoulder joint.  Clients with suspected should instability SHOULD NOT partake in this exercise.

Common Error(s): Arching the upper back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Adductors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Take a wide stance.  Consider the use of a self-spotting technique.  Place your hands on one knee and lean towards that side until you feel a stretch in the hip adductors (groin).  Move slowly.  Do not overdo the stretch.  You should NOT feel pain or discomfort with the hip joint.  Push through your hands onto your knee to assist coming out of the stretch.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Biceps, Deltoids (Anterior)
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Maintaining an upright and neutral spine/posture clasp your hands behind your back.  Slowly elevate your arms while keeping your hands clasped upwards.  Careful not to allow your head to shift forward.  Consider holding a stretch strap or towel if you cannot reach your hands together.  The stretch should be in the front delt, chest and biceps.  You should NOT feel pain with the shoulder joint.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

See picture.  Make sure that you are flexed forward slightly at the trunk.  There should be no discomfort or pain within your lower back.  A dowel can be held and/or you may grasp a fixed cage/rig to help brace yourself and increase the intensity of the stretch.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Maintaining an upright posture and neutral spine/pelvis lean forward with the chest toward the elevated foot.  Dorsiflex the foot to increase the intensity of the stretch.  Do not allow the pelvis to tilt posteriorly.  Consider a self spotting option for safety.

Common Error(s): Rounded lower back
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Flexors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

In a staggered stance.  Posteriorly tilt the pelvis and lunge forward until you feel a stretch in the hip flexors of the back leg.  There should be no pain or discomfort within the hip of lower back.  Bending the back knee (or the leg being stretched) will include the rectus femoris muscle.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: IT Band Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Standing perpendicular to the wall.  Slide your inside leg outwards and slightly backwards without bending forward at the waist.  Brace your inside arm against the wall.  Lean your inside hip towards the wall.  The stretch should be in the lateral / proximal leg and pelvic area.  You should NOT feel pain in your lower back.

Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

This should NOT be done if there is a history of shoulder pain.  Reach one hand behind your back from high and the other from low.  Using a towel, dowel or strap apply light pressure from the down hand creating a stretch in the back of the upper arm.  Alternatively you can place the lower hand on the elbow of the upper arm to apply pressure.  If you apply pressure from the upper arm you will get a shoulder internal rotation stretch on the lower arm when behind the back.  There should be NO pain with the shoulder joint.  Resist excessive arching of the back and keep the ribs from riding upwards.

Common Error(s): Arching the upper back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deltoid (Posterior) Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

See picture.  Make sure not to shrug the shoulders during the stretch.  Make sure not to allow the scapulae to protract excessively.  Apply the stretch by pushing inwards towards your upper chest.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Wrist Flexor Synergist(s): Wrist Extensor
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Elbow should be fully extended.  Remember certain wrist flexors and extensors cross both the elbow, wrist and fingers.  As such all of these joints must be considered.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s): Brachioradialis
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Gait Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Playing at the park
  • Walking outdoor
  • Playing  at the Forest
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Trapezius Synergist(s): Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

The focus is on your shoulder blades.  Elevate, Abduct (protract), Depress, Abduct (retract), Repeat.  Careful not to let your head glide forward (stay neutral) or your rips elevate/pelvis anterior tilt (core strong).

Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Wrist Flexor Synergist(s): Wrist Extensor
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Seated upright with forearm placed firmly on thighs.
  2. Making sure that the forearm doesn’t move use wrist flexion/extension/ulnar and radial deviation to create full range pain free movements at the wrist (not elbow) in both directions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hip Flexors Synergist(s): Gluteals, TFL
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
1. Activate your glutes by lifting one leg out to the side.
2. Draw circles with that leg, feeling your glutes.
3. Consider a self-spotting option. Without a spot, this becomes more of a balance exercise than a hip mobility one.
4. Try to maximize the pain-free hip range (flexion, abduction, extension, repeat).
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hip Flexors Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Support yourself on a wall and face straight ahead.
  2. Swing one leg forward and back like a pendulum, keeping your posture tall and your core engaged.
  3. Try not to swing your leg aggressively at first; instead, lightly start to swing it and grad­ually increase your range of motion.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand in an upright position rotate the arms in a simultaneous clockwise or counterclockwise fashion.
  2. Start with small circles and slowly work your way into larger circles.
  3. Continue until the shoulders start to loosen up and blood flow increases.
  4. Repeat the process in the opposite direction.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Obliques
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. stand upright
  2. one hand at your hips
  3. opposite hand leaning to the side without moving forward
  4. hold it for about 10-20seconds
  5. alternate side to side

 

 

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Hip Flexors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Remain upright and maintain good posture.  Elevate knees as high as possible without losing ideal spine posture.  Include the arms if wanted.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. STEPS:
  2. Stand upright with your legs together, arms at your sides.
  3. Bend your knees slightly, and jump into the air.
  4. As you jump, spread your legs to be about shoulder-width apart. Stretch your arms out and over your head.
  5. Jump back to starting position.
  6. Repeat.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Without jumping mimic a jumping jack motion.  Maximize shoulder range of motion.  A slight bend of the knee is acceptable.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

1. Sit in a chair with good posture without touching the back rest.

2. stretch your back in a cow resting your hands on your feet.

3. lean forward and go in a cat position.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Complete with both legs up.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Ensure the client is in a secure seated position.  Wheelchair locked or chair secure against wall.  If possible adjust the height of the table so that the arm crank is between shoulder and navel height.  Ensure that the arm crank is secure to table.  Engage core.  While maintaining an upright posture begin arm cranking.  Caution: shoulder fatigue before aerobic fatigue.  Make sure to check on your clients shoulder fatigue regularly.

Common Error(s): Rounded shoulders | Rounded lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hip Flexors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Secure client in seated position.  Lock wheelchair.  Place chair against wall.  Make sure chair does not have wheels.  Remove foot pedals from wheelchair.  Position the floor pedal so that the client is in a comfortable and upright position.  Secure the feet within the foot pedals.  Engage core and remembering to breath begin pedaling.  Adjust intensity as needed.  Caution – fatigue in hips before aerobic system.  Ask client how their hips are feeling throughout.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Client sit and rest in a chair with arm rests or with left arm on table
  2. Feet should be flat on the floor
  3. Rest for 5 minutes – this can happen while you build a rapport and ask discovery questions
  4. Ensure ear pieces are pointing forward in stethoscope
  5. Place diaphragm of stethoscope on sternum or second intercostal space on left side
  6. Alternatively, manually palpate radial pulse with index and middle finger on wrist (base of thumb)
  7. Use a 15-second count
  8. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with a beat
  9. Count the first beat as zero (0)
  10. Multiple value by 4 to get a beat per minute (bpm)
  11. Record information number on the client information sheet

If client’s RHR is >99 bpm request that the client sits quietly for 5 minutes and repeat the procedure

 

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Client sit and rest in a chair with arm rests or with left arm on table
  2. Feet should be flat on the floor
  3. Rest for 5 minutes – this can happen while you build a rapport, ask discovery questions, complete RHR assessment
  4. Choose an appropriately sized cuff for the client
  5. Place the cuff on the bare left upper arm, 2-3 cm above the antecubital space
  6. The lower edge of the cuff should be approximately level with the heart
  7. The cuff should be tight enough so that two fingertips can be slipped under the top edge
  8. If possible, palpate brachial artery and ensure arrow on cuff lines up
  9. Find radial pulse with one hand
  10. With the other hand, rapidly inflate cuff until you no longer feel radial pulse
  11. Inflate cuff 20-30 mmHg above that point
  12. With ear pieces pointing forward, put stethoscope in ears, and put diaphragm over brachial artery
    • Ensure diaphragm of stethoscope is in complete contact with skin, not touching cuff or tubing
  13. Release pressure slowly (2 mmHg/second)
  14. Record Systolic blood pressure to the nearest 2 mmHg – the first perception of sound as the pressure drops
    • blood is now passing through upper arm
  15. Record Diastolic blood pressure to the nearest 2 mmHg – the sounds becomes muffled (from tapping)

If the SBP is >144 mmHg or the DBP is >94 mmHG wait an additional five minutes and retake reading

If the SBP is >160 mmHg or the DBP is > 90 mmHg after the second reading consider sending your client to a Physician prior to having them engage in physical activity. Note, hypertension is defined as 140 mmHg / 90 mmHg.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Generally, 1-RM testing is conducted on advanced lifters using compound (multi-joint) movements such as: squat, leg press, bench press, deadlift, power clean, snatch.

If you need to estimate a client’s 1-RM, use the calculator here: 1-RM Calculator

1-RM Warm-up Protocol

N.B. Have client spend 5-10 minutes warming up (combination general and dynamic is ideal).

  • Warm-up set 1: 10 repetitions at 50% 1RM. 1-2 minutes rest
  • Warm-up set 2: 5 repetitions at 70% 1RM. 2-3 minutes rest
  • Warm-up set 3: 3 repetitions at 80% 1RM. 2-4 minutes rest
  • Final warm-up set: 1 repetition at 90% 1RM. 2-4 minutes rest.

Testing Protocol

For loads above 90% of hypothetical 1-RM, look to increase by:

  • Upper body: 10-20 lbs (or 5-10%)
  • Lower body: 30-40 lbs (or 10-20%)

Use up to three attempts (and not more than 5) to determine actual 1 RM with 2-4 min rest between each effort.

If an athlete fails on a lift, give them 2-4 minutes rest and re-attempt the lift by decreasing the load (from the failed attempt):

  • Upper body: 5-10 lbs (or 2.5-5%)
  • Lower body: 30-40 lbs (or 5-10%)
Common Error(s):
Spotting: 2 person spotting
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Before beginning the test, make sure the Vertec pole is locked at one of the height markings on the pole (they go up in 6 inch increment).

Take the standing height of the subject with one arm fully extended upward, then have the subject jump up and touch the highest possible vane. After each jump, move the vanes below the highest point reached out of the way before allowing the next attempt.

  • N.B. When using this device, it is very handy to have a pole for resetting the vanes without lowering the unit, and you should place weights on the base to avoid tipping.

Each vane is in 1/2 inch increments (cm increments may be available). A client’s vertical jump is the difference between standing height and jumping height.

  • N.B. Alternatively, you can adjust the lowest vane to be at the point of the arm fully extended with both feet on the ground, then the jump height is simply the highest vane reached. This approach is only suitable for subjects with smaller vertical jump capabilities.

The Vertec allows measurements from a low of 6 feet to a high of 12 feet.

Test Instructions

  1. Have the client stand erect with feet flat on the floor.
  2. Ask the client to reach as high as possible on the Vertec with the arm and fingers fully extended, feet remain flat on the floor. Record this stand and reach height to the nearest 0.5 inch.
  3. Next, ask the client to move a safe distance away from the Vertec.
  4. Have the client bring the arms down and back, bending the knees into a balanced semi-squat. The client should pause (1-2 seconds) in the semi-squat position and then jump as high as possible with the arms moving forward and up to touch the vanes at the highest point they can reach.
  5. Instruct the client to concentrate on the Vertec as they jump as high as possible.

Allow the client three trials, with a rest period of 10-15 seconds between each. No run up, step up or pre-jump is permitted (feet flat on the floor to start). Record the highest of the 3 jumps.

Scoring and Recording

Subtract the stand and reach measurement from the best of the three jump and reach trials to get the maximum difference.

Calculate Peak Leg Power in watts (W) using the formula (recall 1 in = 2.54 cm):

Peak Leg Power (W) = [60.7 x jump height (cm)] + [45.3 x body mass (kg)] – 2055

Record the Peak Leg Power and the associated Health Benefit Rating on the Client Information Sheet.

Rating LEG POWER (Watts)
15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69
M F M F M F M F M F M F
Excellent ≥4644 ≥3167 ≥5094 ≥3250 ≥4860 ≥3193 ≥4320 ≥2675 ≥4019 ≥2559 ≥3764 ≥2475
Very Good 4185-4683 2795-3166 4640-5093 2804-3249 4389-4859 2550-3192 3700-4319 2288-2674 3567-4018 2161-2558 3291-3763 1717-2474
Good 3858-3857 2399-2794 4297-4939 2478-2803 3967-4388 2335-2549 3242-3699 2101-2287 2937-3566 1701-2160 2848-3290 1317-1717
Fair 3323-3857 2156-2398 3775-4296 2271-2477 3485-3966 2147-2334 2708-3241 1688-2100 2512-2936 1386-1700 2383-2842 1198-1316
Needs Improvement ≤3322 ≤2155 ≤3774 ≤2270 ≤3484 ≤2146 ≤2707 ≤1687 ≤2511 ≤1385 ≤2382 ≤1197
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

The following protocol is adapted from (Clemons, Campbell, and Jeansonne 2010)

Equipment

  • 45° incline bench
  • High-durability medicine ball: 6 kilograms (13.2 lb) for females, 9 kilograms (19.8 lb) for males
  • Gymnastics chalk (if available/allowed)
  • Measuring tape
  • Room or gymnasium with at least 8 meters (26 feet) of clearance

Procedure

  1. The measuring tape is placed on the floor with the end positioned under the front frame of the bench, to anchor it.
  2. The tip of the tape should be positioned so it is aligned with the outside of the medicine ball while it rests on the subject’s chest (i.e., in the ready position, prior to putting the ball) (Clemons, Campbell, and Jeansonne 2010; see figure 9.6).
  3. The tape should be extended outward from the bench for at least 8 meters (26 feet), and secured to the floor.
  4. Warm-up: After initial familiarization with the bench orientation and putting procedure, the subject performs five minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, followed by several dynamic range of motion exercises for the shoulder and elbow joint (e.g., modified or regular push-ups or hand walk-outs). The subject is then allowed several submaximal trials with the appropriate medicine ball.
  5. For the test, the subject should be seated comfortably on the incline bench with feet flat on the floor and the medicine ball against the chest.
  6. The subject grasps the medicine ball with both hands, one on each side.
  7. Without any additional bodily movement (e.g., trunk or neck flexion, arm countermovement), the subject attempts to propel (i.e., “put”) the medicine ball at an optimal trajectory of 45°, for maximal horizontal distance.
  8. Every attempt should be made to propel the ball in a straight line, to yield valid data.
  9. Three to five attempts are permitted, with a minimum of two minutes of rest between attempts.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Weight

  1. Zero the scales before the client steps onto them, making sure the scale is sitting on a flat surface.
  2. Ask the client to remove any ‘heavy’ items from their pockets (key’s, wallets etc) and remove any heavy items of clothing or apparel (big jackets, shoes, jewelry, etc)
  3. Ensure you note the clients state and time of day for testing to ensure any subsequent tests can be taken under identical conditions (check state of hydration, food consumed recently etc)
  4. When measuring weight – ask client to look straight ahead and stay still on the scales.  Wait for the needle/digital screen to settle before recording the measurement. Record weight to the nearest 0.1 kg.

Height

  1. Remember to raise the anthropometer arm before starting the test.
  2. Ask your client to remove their shoes prior to taking the measurement.
  3. Instruct your client to stand as erect as possible, looking directly forward, with feet flat on the floor and heels together facing away from the wall or stadiometer.
  4. Immediately before taking the measurement, instruct the client to take a deep breath and hold until the measurement has been taken.
  5. Lower the measuring device until it rests gently on the top of your clients head and record the measurement (to the nearest 0.5 cm)
    • If when the client stands on the stadiometer they are above your eye level, ensure you are standing on a box or small stool so that you can take the reading at eye-level.

Additional resource: BMI Table

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Quadriceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Pre-Exercise

  • Complete client prescreening
  • Use table to determine the starting stage
  • Calculate 85% of client’s HR max and divide by 6 to get that data in a 10s count for easy comparison
  • Explain purpose of test
  • Demonstrate the stepping sequence of step-step-up, step-step-down
  • Instruct client to walk – not run
  • Instruct client to place both feet on the top step, to keep good posture, and to breathe throughout the task
  • Explain that each stage will be 3 minutes long, and they will get progressively faster
  • Explain to the client that when the music stops you will get his/her HR
  • Explain the purpose of the BORG scale and let the client know that you will ask for that information between each stage also
  • Place marker on the wall for your client to concentrate
  • Have your client practice once/twice without music and once/twice with music (on appropriate starting stage) as you chant with music step-step-up; step-step-down
  • Remind your client that you will be watching for their safety, but they should let you know if they feel pain or if they need to stop the test for any reason

During Exercise

  • Monitor client
  • Properly encourage client
  • Help client keep accurate cadence
  • Accurately obtain heart rate and RPE between each stage
  • Continue the music until heart rate exceeds 85%

Post-Exercise

  • Provide active recovery for 3-5minutes
  • Check HR every minute (10s count) for 3-5 minutes
  • Have your client sit for at least 3-5 minutes
  • Check HR and BP on minutes 1 and 3 (and possibly 5)
  • Ensure HR and BP are below ceiling values
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Complete client prescreening
  • Determine whether there is reason the client should not engage in assessment
  • Explain the purpose
  • Explain the procedure of the assessment
  • Have client remove his/her shoes
  • Have client do modified hurdler stretch 2X on each leg for 20s each time (stretch for 80s total)
  • Pull ruler out on flexometer to 26cm
  • Demonstrate assessment
  • Ensure client’s feet are 6 inches apart
  • Have client lower head and exhale while sliding fingers across the rules
  • Arms should be fully extended, palms down, index fingers together
  • Hold the stretch for 2s, no bouncing
  • If client’s knees flex the trial is not counted
  • Client gets two attempts
  • Record to the nearest 0.5cm
  • Use max effort for HBR
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Complete client prescreening
  • Determine whether there is reason the client should not engage in assessment
  • Explain the purpose
  • Explain the procedure of the assessment
  • Demonstrate
  • Ensure client is clear on when the assessment will stop
  • Have client remove his/her shoes
  • Have client cross his/her arms over chest
  • Instruct client to focus on marker on the wall
  • Client may choose foot to raise first, near ankle
  • Time starts when the foot raises
  • Repeat on other leg
  • Repeat on both legs with eyes closed
  • If the client loses balance before 3s in eyes closed test he/she may try again
  • Time ends: 1) arms moved; 2) raised foot moved; 3) weight-bearing foot moved (maintain balance); 4) 45 s; 5) eyes open (in eyes closed task)
  • Record to the nearest 0.1s
  • Determine HBR
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Complete client prescreening
  • Determine whether there is reason the client should not engage in assessment
  • Explain the purpose
  • Explain the procedure of the assessment
  • Have client complete pre-screening exercise; Client prone: single straight-leg extension with each leg, followed by straight-leg extensions with extension of opposite arm.
  • If there is discomfort or pain, the test should not be done.
  • Ensure client is clear on when the assessment will stop
  • Set-up client so that his/her iliac crest is aligned with the edge of the riser
  • Instruct client to concentrate on the floor, cross arms on the chest, and assist client to raise his/her torso to 180 degrees
  • Client is allowed one warning and re-positioning
  • Stop test: pain, fatigue, torso drops below the horizontal (after one warning and adjustment), or 180 s (3 min)
  • Record to the nearest 1s
  • Determine HBR
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Rhomboids Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Make sure your hips, low and mid back, as well as head and shoulders are flat against the wall.
  2. Engage the core musculature to keep contact with the wall and prevent ribs from elevating.
  3. Start by establishing back position, followed by rotating hands towards the wall.
  4. Once the position in point 3 is established begin to overhead press/slide above head without losing wall contact.
  5. The movement should improve shoulder mobility and upper body postural control.
Common Error(s): Arching the upper back | Not engaging core | Rounded shoulders
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Sternoclenomastoid Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Starting with a neutral head posture.
  2. Side flex at the neck.
  3. Extend head back.
  4. Look to ceiling on side away from side flexion.
  5. To intensify stretch keep jaw closed and/or depress shoulder / clavicle on the stretching side.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

The Wingate test requires the subject to pedal a mechanically braked bicycle ergometer (an arm ergometer can also be used), for 30 seconds, at an “all out” pace.

A counter is used to record revolutions of the flywheel in 5-second intervals (alternatively, some bikes are equipped with a watt meter).

Although the actual Wingate test is performed in a 30-second time span, the individual is advised to complete a warm-up (3-5 minutes), followed by a recovery cool down (2-5 minutes).

On commencing the test (usually by a verbal signal from the tester), the individual pedals “all out” with little to no resistance. Within 3 seconds, the predetermined fixed resistance is applied to the flywheel and remains there for the duration of the 30-second test. For the Monark ergometers we use in lab, you will need to manually record the watt readings at every 5 seconds, for the duration of the test and transfer them to your performance sheet: Performance Data Collection

Resistance
When using a Monark ergometer, the standard resistance = 0.075 kg per kilogram of body weight. For power athletes and sprint athletes, resistance may be increased to values in the range of 1.0 kg per kilogram of body weight to 1.3 kg per kilogram of body weight.

Test Scores
Calculated measures from the Wingate test include:

  • Peak Power (PP)
    • Peak power is ideally measured in first 5-second interval of the Wingate test
  • Relative Peak Power (RPP)
    • Relative peak power is determined simply by dividing peak power by body mass and is expressed as W/kg
  • Anaerobic Capacity
    • The average wattage maintained over the 30-sec test
  • Fatigue Index (AF)
    • (Highest 5-second peak power output) – (Lowest 5-second peak power output) / (Highest 5-second peak power output) x 100 to get the percentage decline.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

10 Sec Peak Power Test

Peak Power is measured with a 10s erg test.

Warm up by rowing easy for 5-10 minutes. At the end of your warm up come to a full stop and let the fly wheel stop. On a Concept II set the drag factor to 190. The high drag factor is necessary to provide adequate resistance so that you can hit a true peak power.

Set your monitor so that you can see the watts for each stroke. From a stop row as hard and as fast as possible for 10 seconds, recording the highest power you see on any stroke. Rest for 3-5 minutes and repeat again. There is a slight learning effect when you first do this test so you might want to do it 2-3 times to get a true peak power score.

1-Min Test

Warm up by rowing easy for 5-10 minutes. At the end of your warm up come to a full stop and let the fly wheel stop.

For this test, you will want the drag factor set as follow: males – 130, females: – 110.

Set your monitor so that you can see the watts for each stroke. From a stop row as hard and as fast as possible for a full minute, recording your distance covered and the average watts you output for the test.

Performance Standards

Because body weight will have a significant impact on rowing performance power to weight ratios have been developed for men and women at different performance levels (table 1).

High School

College

Senior College and Masters

National

Elite International

Men

6.0-8.5

7.0-9.0

8.5-10.0

9.0-11.0

10.0-12.5

Women

4.5-7.5

6.1-8.25

7.3-9.0

8.27-9.9

9.65-10.1

These ranges have been developed based on the scores of top performers in each category.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

ASSESSMENT
The purpose of the Wellness Fitness Initiative (WFI) assessment is to estimate the VO2 max of each participant, using commercially available equipment (treadmill, heart rate monitor, stopwatch, height/weight scales).

Max HR (max heart rate) = (208 – 0.7 x age)
THR (target heart rate) = 85% of max HR; (208 – 0.7 x age) * 0.85

  1. The participant straddles the treadmill belt until it begins to move. When the treadmill reaches approximately 1 mph, instruct the participant to step on to the belt. Then increase the speed to 3 mph at 0% grade. Monitor the participant’s heart rate continuously throughout the assessment.
  2. Start the stopwatch when the treadmill reaches 3 mph at 0% grade. Continue with this speed and grade for 3 minutes (steady state).
  3. After completing the 3-minute steady state interval, inform the participant that the speed will increase to 4.5 mph.
  4. Advise the participant that the assessment is a series of 1-minute intervals, alternating between speed and percent grade. All subsequent speed increases occur at 0.5 mph.
  5. At 4:01 minutes, increase the grade from 0% to 2%. At this time, inform the participant that all subsequent grade increases occur at 2% intervals.
  6. The assessment will continue until the participant’s heart rate exceeds the THR rate for 15 seconds, or the subject exhibits the medical criteria for early
    termination.
  7. Once the heart rate exceeds the Target Heart Rate (THR), note the time and continue the assessment for an additional 15 seconds. Do not make any changes to the assessment speed or grade during this time. If the participant’s heart rate remains above the THR for the full 15 seconds,then stop the assessment and proceed to the cool-down phase. Record the total time, including the 3-minute warm-up, at which point the participant exceeds the THR. If the participant’s heart rate exceeds the target, but then drops back to the THR or below within 15 seconds,then the assessment should continue. The assessment is not complete until the participant’s heart rate exceeds the THR for 15 seconds. If this does not occur within 18 minutes, then terminate the assessment and record the time.
  8. Once the assessment is completed, the time is recorded. The participant should perform a cool-down for a minimum of 3 minutes at 3 mph, 0% grade. Continue to monitor the heart rate during the cool-down. Record the recovery heart rate at 1 minute of cool-down.
Time Speed (mph) % Grade
Trial 0:00 – 1:00 3.0 0
1:01 – 2:00 3.0 0
2:01 – 3:00 3.0 0
3:01 – 4:00 4.5 0
4:01 – 5:00 4.5 2
5:01 – 6:00 5.0 2
6:01 – 7:00 5.0 4
7:01 – 8:00 5.5 4
8:01 – 9:00 5.5 6
9:01 – 10:00 6.0 6
10:01 – 11:00 6.0 8
11:01 – 12:00 6.5 8
12:01 – 13:00 6.5 10
13:01 – 14:00 7.0 10
14:01 – 15:00 7.0 12
15:01 – 16:00 7.5 12
16:01 – 17:00 7.5 14
17:01 – 18:00 8 14
Recovery 0:00 – 1:00 3.0 0
1:01 – 2:00 3.0 0
2:01 – 3:00 3.0 0

TERMINATE THE ASSESSMENT IF ANY OF THE FOLLOWING OCCURS:

  • The THR is exceeded for 15 seconds.
  • The THR has not been met after 18 minutes.
  • The participant asks to terminate the exercise.
  • The equipment malfunctions.
  • Medical conditions arise that prohibit completing the
    assessment.

Record the reason for terminating the assessment and the initial time the THR was exceeded (if applicable). Record time in minutes and convert second(s)into decimal. Use the test time (TT) the participant completed the assessment (i.e. exceeded the THR) along with the treadmill conversion formula to estimate VO2 max.

VO2 Max Calculation

VO2 max formula = 56.981 + (1.242 × TT) – (0.805 × BMI)
TT = time in minutes that THR was exceeded and test terminated
BMI = body mass index [body weight (kg)/height (m)^2]

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Lumberjack Squat Progressions: Front Squat
Key Teaching Points
  • Starting Position – Clean the kettlebells into position ( resting on your forearms, biceps, and shoulder with a neutral wrist position). Set your feet to shoulder-width apart, with toes pointing out slightly.
  • Movement – Attempt to to sit straight down, keeping your hips underneath you the whole time (you should aim to keep toes and heels in contact with the ground the entire time). As a cue, you can imagine trying to use your hamstrings to pull yourself straight down. At the bottom of the movement, pause, then press the ground away through your heels, not letting the hips rise ahead of your knees.

Maintain a firm wrist while holding the kettlebells and keep the elbows point down (do not let them flare out to 90º)

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Torso collapses forward | Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a prone lying plank position with foam roller under quads.
  2. Adjust position as needed to target proximal, distal, lateral, medial and central quads.
  3. Keep pressure on elbow(s) and feet/toes to control the degree of pressure.
  4. Increase intensity by removing support leg and/or crossing one leg over the other.  Decrease intensity by addition of support leg and taking more pressure on elbows and feet.
  5. Roll a small area at a time and then move to another area.  Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Gastrocnemius Synergist(s): Peroneals, Soleus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a supine crab walk position with foam roller under the gastrocnemius (calves).
  2. Adjust position as needed to target proximal, distal, lateral, medial and central calves.
  3. Keep pressure on hands and feet to control the degree of pressure.
  4. Increase intensity by removing support leg and/or crossing one leg over the other.  Decrease intensity by addition of support leg and taking more pressure on hands and foot.
  5. Roll a small area at a time and then move to another area.  Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): IT Band, Piriformis, TFL
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a seated position (on the floor) with foam roller under the gluteal muscles.
  2. Cross one leg over the other.  The crossed leg will be the side you target.
  3. Adjust position as needed to target proximal, distal, lateral, medial and central glutes.  An extreme proximal lateral position will target the TFL.  A central position will target the piriformis.
  4. Keep pressure on hands and feet to control the degree of pressure.
  5. Roll a small area at a time and then move to another area.  Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a supine crab walk position with foam roller under the hamstrings.
  2. Adjust position as needed to target proximal, distal, lateral, medial and central hamstrings.
  3. Keep pressure on hands and feet to control the degree of pressure.
  4. Increase intensity by removing support leg and/or crossing one leg over the other.  Decrease intensity by addition of support leg and taking more pressure on hands and foot.
  5. Roll a small area at a time and then move to another area.  Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Serratus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a side lying position with foam roller under latissimus dorsi muscle.
  2. Adjust position as needed to target proximal, distal, lateral, medial and central lats.
  3. Keep pressure on hips and opposite hand to control the degree of pressure.
  4. Increase intensity by removing support hand.  Decrease intensity by addition of support hand and taking more pressure on hip.
  5. Roll a small area at a time and then move to another area.  Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Piriformis Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a seated crab walk position with lacrosse ball under the piriformis muscle (runs from sacrum to greater trochanter).
  2. Cross one leg over the other to expose/stretch the pirimormis.
  3. Keep pressure on hands and feet to control the degree of pressure.
  4. Minimize rolling around too much and instead focus on applying direct pressure but not for too long!
  5. Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Pec Minor Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Standing facing the wall with one arm behind your back place the lacrosse ball over the pectoralis minor muscle (runs from ribs 3-5 to coracoid process) and secure the ball between your chest and the wall.
  2. Increase pressure by pushing more into the wall or completing exercise prone on ground. Decrease pressure by doing the opposite.
  3. Minimize rolling around too much and instead focus on applying direct pressure but not for too long!
  4. Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
  5. An alternative position is to have the arm overhead with ribs tucked down (thus stretching the pec minor) and then apply direct pressure with the lacrosse ball that is held in your hand.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Trapezius Synergist(s): Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lying prone place the lacrosse ball over the middle traps / rhomboids  and secure the ball between your back and the floor.
  2. Increase pressure by pushing more into the ground. Decrease pressure by doing the opposite or complete in standing against the wall.
  3. Initially adjust proximal or distal to target area(s) and then minimize rolling around too much and apply direct pressure but not for too long!
  4. Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
  5. Caution not to overdo this area as most people tend toward a rounded shoulder forward posture and this muscle may be weak and/or lengthened (vs. shortened).
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Foot Arch Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Standing place the lacrosse ball over within the medial longitudinal arch of your foot.
  2. Increase pressure by pushing more into the ground. Decrease pressure by doing the opposite or complete while seated.
  3. Gentle roll forward and back to locate key area(s).  At that point minimize rolling around too much and instead focus on applying direct pressure but not for too long!
  4. Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a supine semi-sit position with foam roller the thoracic spine.
  2. Adjust position as needed to target proximal and/or distal spinal segments.  Do NOT place foam roller under cervical or lumbar spine!
  3. Once foam roller is in desired position slowly extend backwards (supporting your head and neck) until you get a gentle (pain free) extension of the spine.
  4. Try to relax at the end of the movement.
  5. Do not over do any one area to the point of significant pain or discomfort.  Less is more.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lie flat in supine position
  2. Place one hand on chest and other on abdominal
  3. Inhale deeply and slowly through your nose
  4. Exhale out your mouth
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Snatch Progressions: Snatch
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Stand behind kettlebell with feet slightly wider apart than shoulder width. Bend over at hip with knees bent and back straight. Extend arm downward and grasp kettlebell handle with overhand grip. Lift kettlebell off of floor and pull forearm against inner thighs while keeping hips and knees bent with low back taut.

Execution

Drive hips forward, torso upright, and knees straight so kettlebell is pushed forward and upward. As kettlebell begins to swing forward vigorously raise shoulder above kettlebell. As kettlebell begins to swing up past the hips, pull kettlebell toward body slightly with elbow pointing outward. As kettlebell continues to rise slightly, decelerate rise of handle allowing kettlebell to rotate in hand into inverted position. Punch kettlebell upward in a overhead straight arm position with kettlebell positioned behind forearm.

Return

Swing kettlebell forward and downward. As kettlebell is swung to lower position, fold at hips while bending knees. Allow forearm to make contact with inner thigh, swing kettlebell back under hips, and repeat movement. To stop exercise, place kettlebell on floor. Continue with opposite arm.
Common Error(s): Rounded lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: | Snatch Progressions: Snatch
Key Teaching Points

Preparation

Stand over barbell with balls of feet positioned under bar hip width or slightly wider than hip width apart. Squat down and grip bar with very wide overhand grip. Position shoulders over bar with back arched tightly. Arms are straight with elbows pointed along bar.

Execution

Pull bar up off floor by extending hips and knees. As bar reaches knees, back stays arched and maintains same angle to floor as in starting position. When barbell passes knees, vigorously raise shoulders while keeping bar as close to legs as possible. When bar passes upper thighs, allow it to contact thighs. Jump upward extending body. Shrug shoulders and pull barbell upward with arms, allowing elbows to pull up to sides, keeping them over bar as long as possible. Aggressively pull body under bar. Catch bar at arm’s length before knees bend lower than 90°. As soon as barbell is caught on locked out arms in partial squat position, stand up with barbell over head immediately so thighs ride no lower than parallel to floor.

Return

Bend knees slightly and lower barbell to mid-thigh position. Slowly lower bar with taut lower back and trunk close to vertical. The advanced athlete may unload (drop) bar from completed position. This technique may be practiced to reduce stress or fatigue involved in lowering bar as prescribed. Use rubber weightlifting plates on weightlifting platform if this unloading method is used (unless floor demolition is desired).
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Obliques
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Grab DB, KB or cable handle with both hands clasped over each other.
  2. Take a shoulder width stance and engage the intrinsic core.
  3. Chop from low to high starting with a neutral squat.
  4. Return to starting position. Remember to breath but do not lose core engagement during movement.
  5. Keep the arms straight and try to rotate through the t-spine while maintaining a more stable forward hip position.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lying supine with straight arm overhead and KB in hand.
  2. Thrust upwards by pushing KB to sky, engaging sit-up muscles and sliding lower arm underneath you until you are on your elbow.
  3. Pushing from elbow thrust your hips upwards until fully seated upright and now you are on your hand.
  4. Drive leg opposite to DB arm underneath you and thrust upwards yet again until you are in a 1/2 kneeling lunge position.
  5. Stand up out of the lunge to complete the movement.
  6. Return by completing steps in reverse order.
  7. Movement should be fluid.  The KB and arm should remain vertical and in approximately the same position through out the movement (i.e. minimal med/lat/ant/post tracking by engaging shoulder stabilizers).
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Foot/ankle collapse | Valgus knees
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Walking Lunge | Lunge with Reach Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a split squat (static lunge) position.
  2. Place DB or KB in single arm/hand opposite to forward leg.
  3. Either press at top or at bottom of lunge.
  4. Make to engage core and control position / balance throughout movement.
  5. Maintain a neutral pelvis, neutral foot/ankle/knee postures and control weight with shoulder stabilizers.

 

Common Error(s): Foot/ankle collapse | Not engaging core | Torso collapses forward
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. From standing reach hands towards the ground.  This requires good hamstring flexibility and hip mobility.  All small bend at the knees is permitted for those with limited range but every effort should be made to eventually improve flexibility.
  2. Once hands have reached the floor, engage the intrinsic core as you walk forward to a starting push-up position with hands under the shoulders.
  3. Complete a push-up while maintaining a neutral pelvis and engaged core.
  4. Reverse the steps.
  5. Repeat.
Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. This stretch should only be completed pain free.
  2. While lying, allow one leg with bent knee to roll over to the side.
  3. Grasp the lower leg at the ankle and initiate a standard quads stretch.
  4. Place the opposite hand on the knee that is on top.
  5. Roll the shoulder of the hand holding the quads stretch back to the floor while applying an opposing pressure the hand placed on the opposite knee.
  6. The stretch should involve quads, gluts, thoracic spine, and possible chest musculature.
  7. Remember to breath.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lying supine allow bent knees to fall to one side.
  2. Keep shoulders flat on floor.
  3. Either move bent knees back and forth (wiper) and keep upper body fixed OR
  4. Move arms back and forth (wiper) and keep lower body fixed to one side.  Remember to complete both sides.
  5. Movement should be pain free and promote mobility of the thoracic spine region.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start lying prone with hands under shoulders as you would with any push-up position.
  2. Leave the lower half of your body completely relaxed.
  3. Push-up through your hands and complete a full push-up while leaving your lower half completely relaxed.
  4. You should feel a gentle stretch in the abdomen area.
  5. Stop immediately if any pain or discomfort in the lower back.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Pallof Press Progressions: BOSU Plank
Key Teaching Points
  1. While prone start on knees and elbows and establish a neutral pelvis.
  2. Engage intrinsic core to hold this neutral pelvic posture.
  3. Place dowel so that it contacts gluts, t-spine and the back of the head.  Keep all three contact points throughout the exercise.
  4. Adjust forward head posture to neutral.
  5. Elevate to toes and elbows is core strength is sufficient.
Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Rounded shoulders | Not engaging core
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Hinge, Whole Body Target: Spinal Erectors Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Quadriceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Hip Bridge | Deadlift
Key Teaching Points
  1. While standing place the dowel behind your back such that it contacts the gluts, t-spine and back of the head.  You may hold the dowel in the small of the back and curve of the c-spine.
  2. While keeping all points of contact slowly perform a deadlift.
  3. Make sure you flex at the hips and knees sufficiently so that you do not over flex forward at the trunk.
  4. Work towards deep depths as you improve mobility.
  5. Use this exercise to help identify any mobility restrictions you may notice during your deadlift pattern.
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Sagging lower back | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Pec Minor Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set-up similar to pec major but with arm slightly higher and straighter.
  2. Once in position retract the scapulae while engaging core to prevent the rips from rising upwards.
  3. Rotate away and lean forward/downwards until you feel stretch in the pec minor area.
  4. Usually the pec major must be fully lengthened to access the pec minor and as such will make up a large portion of the initial stretch until its full length has been achieved.
  5. Stop immediately if pain in the shoulder joint and/or tingling or numbness down the arm or into the hand.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Deep Neck Flexors Synergist(s): Suboccipitals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Either start in standing (or lying supine as a progression).
  2. Translate the head from a slightly forward posture to a slightly posterior posture.
  3. You should feel fatigue under your ears in your deep neck flexors.   Make sure not to tense up the SCM.
  4. Don’t overdo the movement.  This is a subtle movement.
  5. When done correctly you will give yourself a double chin.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius
Exercise
Regressions: Lying Leg Curl | Leg Curl Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. This exercise can be partner assisted with pressure applied to the ankle of the exerciser to prevent any foot movement which would lower the intensity. Alternatively the feet can be locked onto any solid wall-standing apparatus which would also prevent movement.
  2. Attempt to maintain a straight line from the ear to the knee with the trunk remaining stiff throughout and a neutral spine. Press the hips forward to delay the fall for as long as possible
  3. Once you can delay the fall no longer, fall down into a press up position.
  4. Push back up maintaining the activation of the gluteal muscles, ensuring that you don’t simply push your bum back as you return to the starting position. Again aim to maintain a straight line from the ear to the knee upon the return.
  5. Repeat once you have returned to the starting position.

Variations:

  1. Use lat pulldown machine (kneel on seat, tuck ankles under the knee pad. Use a plyobox as the ‘ground’ you’ll descend to)
  2. Use a dedicated glute-ham raise machine
  3. Modify a back extension machine
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start with feet shoulder width apart.
  2. Begin with a countermovement (quarter squat and arm swing backwards)
  3. Explosively jump forwards as far as possible with both feet. Use the arms to assist with the jump.
  4. Land in the starting position and repeat jump. Allow complete rest between repetitions.
    • Advanced variation: progress to multiple jumps (3-5 jumps) without a pause between jumps.
Common Error(s): Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Hamstrings, Quadriceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume a lunge position with one leg forward (hip and knee joints flexed to approximately 90) and the other behind the midline of the body.
  2. Begin with a countermovement (swing arms back).
  3. Explosively jump up, the arm arms to assist as needed. While off the ground, switch the position of the legs. Maximum height and power should be emphasized.
  4. When landing, maintain the lunge position (opposite leg forward) and immediately repeat the lunge.

N.B. Do not land in too deep of a lunge, as the stretch-shortening cycle may not be able to effectively contribute to subsequent jumps.

Common Error(s): Valgus knees | Torso collapses forward | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Peroneals Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Seated upright in chair with feet flat on ground
  2. secure theraband around training foot and trap to the ground with other foot
  3. hold end of band in hand
  4. Adjust tension by grabbing more or less of the band
  5. slightly elevate and evert the foot at the ankle
Common Error(s):
Spotting: Band/Tubing Anchoring
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Seated upright in chair
  2. Using your distal foot trace out the alphabet
  3. Try to use maximal pain free range of motion during exercise
  4. Make sure to keep hip and knee stable so that the movement is from the ankle only
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. With or without shoes stand upright on both or a single leg
  2. Allow a slight knee bend.  Try to maintain a neutral foot/ankle/knee/hip posture/alignment
  3. Regress to floor
  4. Progress to ball toss or high to low target touch
  5. This exercise focuses on balance and motor control of the lower extremities
Common Error(s): Foot/ankle collapse | Valgus knees
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Gluteals Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set up agility ladder or tape a cross on the floor
  2. While engaging core, hip/knee/foot/ankle stabilizers gently hope back and forth laterally and forward to backward
  3. Focus on landing with a neutral secure postures
  4. Try to absorb the landing by engaging muscles with proper muscle activation timing (do not slap the foot downwards)
  5. Regress by jumping lower.  Progress by jumping higher.  No need to add weight/load unless sport demands it.
Common Error(s): Foot/ankle collapse | Valgus knees | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Soleus Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position your toes on top of the foam roller with your other leg back
  2. With bent legs lean into the foam roller
  3. Hold for 30 seconds
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Tibialis Anterior Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand upright with back against the wall and heels a few inches away from the wall.
  2. Dorsiflex the foot by engaging the tibialis anterior muscle.
  3. Make sure movement is pain free.
  4. Relax and allow the foot to return to the floor.
  5. Repeat!
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Foot Arch Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Seated upright in chair with feet flat on floor.
  2. Place towel (longer the better) on floor and unfold fully away from you.
  3. Using one foot at a time gather up (scrunch up) the towel using the medial longitudinal foot arch muscles.
  4. Add a light weight on top of the towel to make the exercise more challenging.
  5. Make sure to fully contract the foot arch muscles.  Switch sides and repeat.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Gluteals Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Assume side lying position with 30 degrees knee flexion and upper elbow on floor.
  2. While keeping feet together separate at the knees.  Resist the tendency to want to move at the hips and instead make sure all movement is coming from the gluts.
  3. Try placing your clients hand over the Glut med muscle so they can focus on engaging this muscle to initiate the movement.
  4. Rather than adding band resistance around the knees progress movement by placing the upper leg into more hip extension which should further engage the glut med muscle.
  5. Make sure movement is pain free.  Stop immediately if deep hip pain.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Foot Arch, Gluteals, Peroneals, Soleus, Spinal Erectors, Tibialis Anterior, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Dowel Deadlift Progressions: Deadlift
Key Teaching Points
  1. While standing upright slowly lower upper body towards the ground by hinging at the hips.
  2. Maintain neutral spine and head posture both anterior/posterior and horizontal (i.e. don’t let opposite drop).
  3. Make sure knee and foot posture also remains neutral.
  4. Progress by adding weight to hand opposite to support leg.  Regress by using dowel or wall for self spotting.
  5. Note: this exercise is corrective in nature (lower kinetic chain and hamstring co-contraction re-training) and as such should not be used to increase hip hinge maximal load progressions.
Common Error(s): Foot/ankle collapse | Valgus knees | Not engaging core
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Foot Arch, Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Hip Abduction Squats Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start with feet shoulder width and neutral squat stance.
  2. Bend and explode upwards into a jump tucking knees to your chest.
  3. Land softly by absorbing impact with proper and unified muscle firing/timing.
  4. Land with neutral foot/ankle/knee/core/trunk posture.
  5. Regress by not jumping as high or completing band around knees squats if knees go valgus on landing.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Valgus knees | Foot/ankle collapse
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Gait Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Foot Arch, Gluteals, Hamstrings, Hip Abductors, Hip Adductors, Hip Flexors, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Step Up Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set up cone pattern seen in the above picture.
  2. Make sure proper footwear and surface is being utilized (i.e. surface should not be slippery, wet, or uneven).
  3. Move quickly through the pattern in the above picture pivoting and changing direction at each cone.
  4. The pivot movement should be confident and maintain good foot/ankle/knee/hip posture.  We do not want to see too much foot collapse, knee valgus or hip drop.
  5. Regress to a more slow and controlled pattern.  Progress (if necessary) towards expected speed required for sport.
Common Error(s): Foot/ankle collapse | Valgus knees
Spotting: Travel alongside client
Movement Pattern: Target: Quadratus Lumborum Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand upright on a sturdy step or box leaving one leg off the edge.
  2. Use only your hips to initiate movement (NOT by bending at the knee).
  3. Allow your hip to drop towards the ground.
  4. Engage your QL muscle to lift the hip back up as high as possible.
  5. Repeat.  You will be dropping below and then pulling back up above horizontal when looking at your iliac crests (see above picture).
Common Error(s): Valgus knees
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hip Abductors, Quadratus Lumborum
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Standing upright with your side against.
  2. Lift your inside leg to 90 degrees knee flexion.
  3. Establish a neutral hip/pelvis and foot/ankle/knee posture.  Resist the dropping of the elevated hip by performing a hip hike if necessary.
  4. Place a foam roller between your lateral knee and the wall.
  5. By engaging hip abductors and glut muscles push into the wall with the outside of your thigh and hold the contraction until form is lost or fatigue is felt (approx. 15-30 seconds).
Common Error(s): Trendelenburg Hip Drop
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Select a step height that allows for proper neutral lower kinetic chain posture (i.e. the knee should not move valgus and the opposite hip should not drop).
  2. Stand behind box.  Place one foot on box.  Initiate movement be pulling up (gluts, hamstrings) with the upper leg.  Do not push off with lower leg.
  3. During mid step up when the lower leg is off the ground engage glut med, QL and intrinsic core to keep your hips and shoulders level with horizontal plane.
  4. Finish movement with two feet on top, full knee extension and quad engagement.
  5. Reverse slowly and in control maintaining the postures discussed above.  Either alternate legs or complete one side first and then switch.
Common Error(s): Valgus knees | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Rectus Abdominus Synergist(s): Latissimus Dorsi
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Hold a medicine ball with both hands and stand with your feet at shoulder width.
  2. Initiate the countermovement by raising the ball above your head and fully extending your body.
  3. Reverse the motion, slamming the ball into the ground directly in front of you as hard as you can.
    • Do not just throw the ball down with your arms, this movement involves significant core engagement.
  4. Pick the ball up and repeat the movement.

N.B. Depending on the quality of your medicine balls, you may wish to throw the ball onto an exercise mat to prevent breakage and/or excessive rebound of the ball.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Triceps Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Pec Major
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Begin in a kneeling position facing a wall or utilize a partner. Hold the ball with both hands tight into the chest.
  2. Execute the pass by exploding forward and outward with the hips while pushing the ball as hard as possible.
  3. Follow through by falling forward, catching yourself with your hands.
  4. Immediately return to an upright position.

Variation: Medicine Ball Throw with Run Release

  1. Begin in an athletic stance with the knees bent, hips back, and back flat. Hold the medicine ball near your legs.
  2. While taking your first step draw the medicine ball into your chest.
  3. As you take the second step, explosively push the ball forward, immediately sprinting for several yards after the release.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Rotator Cuff Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Standing upright place the palm of your hand (not fingers) over your central abdomen.
  2. Apply isometric pressure by trying to push your palm into your abdomen.
  3. Maintain an upright head and shoulder posture.  Do not round the shoulder of the active arm.
  4. Do not allow the elbow to come inwards towards the body.  Do not allow the wrist to flex.
  5. Hold for 5-15 seconds.  Progress by adding band resistance.
Common Error(s): Rounded shoulders
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Rotator Cuff Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Lying on your side place something under the head to maintain neutral spine posture.
  2. Keep the arm close to the body.  Ideally place a rolled towel between the arm and the body as seen in the picture above to mimic scapular plane.
  3. Using a light DB to start engage the external rotators of the shoulder to lift the DB upwards.  The movement should be slow and controlled.
  4. Make sure the elbow remains in place and the trunk does not change position.  All movement should come from the shoulder rotators.
  5. Shorten range and/or discontinue the movement if pain is felt within the shoulder joint.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Rotator Cuff Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position a Band just above waist height.
  2. Hinge from the elbow and bring the forearm up to 90 degrees while keeping the upper arm tight to the torso.
  3. Externally rotate the shoulder by pulling the handle across your body away from your test while ensuring the hand doesn’t drop.
  4. Slowly lower the Band back to the starting position under control.
  5. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Rotator Cuff Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Standing upright with neutral spine, head and shoulder posture secure the band behind you at above head height.
  2. Move the arm of interest so that your humerus makes a 90 degree angle from your with your trunk.  Keep the elbow bent at a 90 degree angle as well.
  3. Engage the shoulder internal rotators and move the hand forward and downwards by rotating at the shoulders.
  4. Do not allow the elbow, shoulder or upper trunk to move.  Make sure that the shoulder rotators are initiating the movement.
  5. Keep core engage.  This movement should be slow and controlled.
Common Error(s): Arching the upper back | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Rotator Cuff Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position a cable just above waist height and attach a handle.
  2. Raise the upper arm laterally to 90 degrees at the shoulder.
  3. Keep the elbow at 90 degrees and externally rotate directly at the shoulder until the forearm is perpendicular with the floor.
  4. Slowly lower the handle back to the starting position under control.
  5. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Using a chair or bench for stability assume a bent over posture with one hand on the chair/bench and the other dangling relaxed.  Make sure that you establish a neutral spine and head posture.  A slight knee bend is encouraged to help obtain a neutral spine posture.
  2. Hold a KB or DB in the dangling hand.  Allow the weight of the KB or DB to lightly traction the glenohumeral joint.  Try to relax.
  3. The movement should be pain free.  Move either through a circular, figure 8 or cross pattern.
  4. Movement should be very slow and relaxed.
  5. The goal of this exercise is to improve mobility and reduce muscular tension.  It is not a maximal effort type exercise.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Trapezius Synergist(s): Pec Minor, Rhomboids, Serratus, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Standing upright with neutral Spine posture and Trainer standing behind client.
  2. Trainer locates the inferior angle of the client’s scapula by placing thumb along the medial border and fingers along the lateral border.
  3. Without coaching client is asked to abduct the humerus while completing a W to I position shoulder press.
  4. The trainer will note when the client initiates upward rotation of the inferior angle of the scapula.
  5. The trainer will coach the client to engage appropriate scapular control muscles such that upward and downward rotation of the scapula occurs in sync with shoulder abduction movements (i.e. not too early or late).  Scapular retraction exercises are often required to help re-establish good neutral mechanics/motor control.  Movement should be slow and controlled.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Serratus Synergist(s): Pec Minor, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Push Up Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Using a dowel establish a neutral spine/head and shoulder hand width starting position for a push-up.  Make sure the feet are also shoulder width apart and you are on either your toes or knees.
  2. While keeping the core engaged and maintaining perfect spinal/head posture lower to the starting position (chin to floor) in a slow and controlled manner.  Allow the elbows to flair up to 30 degrees (whatever feels most comfortable).  Keep hands fairly straight in front allowing only slight positional adjustment based on wrist comfort.  Keep hands under shoulders.
  3. As you descend the scapulae will adduct/retract.  You should be a full retraction at the bottom of the movement.
  4. As you push upwards gradually allow your scapulae to abduct/protract.  You should be a full protraction at the top of the movement.  You will be in neutral scapular position during mid-phase.
  5. Do not lose your neutral pelvis/spine/head position during the movement despite the scapular positions.  This takes a very strong and coordinated intrinsic core musculature.
Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Pec Minor, Rhomboids, Serratus, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Plank Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Establish the correct starting position for a plank.  Use the dowel as necessary to help establish this position.
  2. While using intrinsic core musculature to maintain a good planking position descend to the floor by allowing the scapulae to adduct/retract.
  3. Do not lose the plank position.
  4. Ascend away from the floor by using the muscles that abduct/protract the scapulae.
  5. This movement should be slow and controlled.
Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Rhomboids Synergist(s): Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Establish the correct starting position for a seated row.  Chest upright.  Head and spine aligned.  Neutral shoulder posture.
  2. Initiate movement with scapular adduction/retraction (NOT latissimus humeral extension).  Meaning complete a shoulder blade row.
  3. Resist the tendency to bend the elbows and extend the humerus.  Focus on squeezing the shoulder blades together.
  4. Try not to shrug too much.  Focus on rhomboids, middle and lower traps instead of upper traps.
  5. This movement should be controlled.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Rounded shoulders | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Wrist Flexor Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Ensure that the forearm does not move by fixing to bench when kneeling behind or thighs when seated.
  2. All the movement should come from the wrist.
  3. It is normal for a bit of pronation to occur at the end of wrist extension.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Wrist Extensor Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Secure forearm on bench if kneeling behind or thigh if seated.
  2. Make sure no movement comes from shoulder or elbow.
  3. Initiate wrist extension by engaging wrist extensors.
  4. It is normal for a bit of supination at end range wrist extension.  Because of this it is preferred to use either a DB or EZ-curl bar.
  5. Can be completed with one or two hands at a time.
Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Wrist Supinator Synergist(s): Wrist Pronator
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Complete while standing for elbow and shoulder motor control OR while seated with forearm fixed to thigh for isolation of wrist muscles.
  2. Holding either one end of a DB or Hammer-style weight start in a neutral forward wrist position.
  3. Allow the weight to move outwards and back for wrist pronator strengthening.
  4. Allow the weight to move inwards and back for wrist supinator strengthening.
  5. This movement should be slow and controlled.  The elbow and shoulder should remain in a stable static position.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

A multiple exercise workout done in succession.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Gait Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Walking Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hip Abductors Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Setup in an upright position with your back against the pad and your spine neutral.
  2. Exhale and push the legs apart as you open the pads.
  3. Once your hips are fully externally rotated, slowly return to the starting position.
  4. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Secure bench or wheelchair in place perpendicular to the band or cable load.
  2. Make sure starting position allows proper arm angles and maintains load throughout movement.  Note: If you are too close to the band anchor point the resistance may slacken off when attempting to execute the movement.
  3. Use handle attachment for cable or dog loop for the band.  Make sure the band is properly anchored.  Make sure that the load is safely transferred to client.  This should be done by having the client grab the weight themselves and bring it to the starting position.
  4. While engaging the core and maintaining upright spine and head posture/alignment have the client straighten the hands directly in front of them.  Hands overlapped and secured on the handle/dog loop and elbows full extended.
  5. Without losing perpendicular loaded position and upright posture the client will flex at the elbows and bring the load towards their chest and then extend back outwards fully.  This should be done in a slow and controlled fashion.  Their inner core should remain engaged throughout the exercise while still remembering to breath.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

1. Keep hands on the chair for balance, flex your knee without moving your hip joint as shown in the picture.

2. Do some repetition then do same protocol with other leg.

Common Error(s):
Spotting: Consider self-spotting option
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Obliques Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Keep your head and hips facing forward with your legs shoulder width apart.
  2. Rotate at the trunk from right to left within your maximal allowable (i.e. pain free) range.

 

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

An easy way to create a secure anchor point when using theraband and/or surgical tubing is to establish a ‘dog lead’ knot within the ends of the band.  See video for details.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Place yourself off to one side of client’s mid-section.
  2. Place measuring tape around waist (smallest girth around the abdomen), ensuring client is not wearing bulky clothes that would invalidate the reading.
  3. Hold zero end of tape in one hand, positioned below the other part of the tape, which is held in your other hand.
  4. Apply tension to the tape so that it fits snugly around the body, but does not compress the skin or body fat.
  5. Align the tape so that it runs horizontal (parallel to the floor) and not diagonal.
  6. At the end of a normal expiration, record measurement to nearest 0.5 cm.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

You will need to enter the following information in order to get a measurement:

  • Normal/Athlete mode
  • Height
  • Weight
  • Age
  • Gender

Directions

  1. Have client stand with both feet slightly apart.
  2. Place both hands on the monitor by correctly holding the grip electrodes.
    1. Wrap your middle finger around the groove of the handle.
    2. Place the palm of your hand on the top and the bottom electrodes.
    3. Put your thumbs up, resting on the top of the monitor.
  3. Hold your arms straight out at a 90° angle to your body.
  4. Press the Start button and hold arms still until your values are displayed.

Please note: 
Avoid taking a measurement immediately after these situations, as the measured body fat
percentage may differ significantly from the actual one because the water content in the
body is changing:

  • • After drinking a large amount of water or after a meal (1 to 2 hours)
  • • After drinking alcohol
  • Immediately after exercise
  • Immediately after a shower, bath or sauna
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Initial Consultation

  1. Introduce yourself and ask the client for their name.
  2. Ask an open-ended question (i.e. a question that involves more than a yes/no answer)
    • If they mention something noteworthy, make sure to ask a relevant follow-up question.
  3. Review the purpose/goal of today’s session.
  4. Screen for injuries and pain/discomfort associated with physical activity.

During the Assessment or Exercise Demonstration

  1. Continue to screen pain/discomfort whenever introducing a new activity.
  2. If you will be touching a client, make sure you screen a client’s comfort level with physical contact.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Procedure: 

  1. Three marker cones are placed to form an “L.” with cones at the corner and at each end, 5 yards apart (see diagram).
  2. The player starts by getting down in a three-point stance next to Cone 1.
  3. On the command ‘Go’, he runs to Cone 2, bends down and touches a line with his right hand.
  4. Then he turns and runs back to Cone 1, bends down and touches that line with his right hand.
  5. Then he runs back to Cone 2 and around the outside of it, weaves inside Cone 3, then around the outside of Cones 3 and 2 before finishing at Cone 1.
  6. The player must run forward while altering his running direction, as opposed to strictly stopping and starting in opposite directions. Each time they perform the 3-cone drill for a different side (e.g. first time they curve to the left, second time they curve to the right).

Scoring: The time to complete the test in seconds is recorded. The score is the best time of two trials.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Procedure: 

  1. Three marker cones are placed along a line five yards apart.
  2. The player straddles the middle line and puts one hand down in a three-point stance.
  3. The player can start by going either to the right or left direction.
    • For example, on the signal ‘Go’ the player turns and runs five yards to the right side and touches the line with his right hand.
    • He then runs 10 yards to his left and touches the other line with his left hand, then finally turns and finishes by running back through the start/finish line.
    • The player is required to touch the line at each turn.

Scoring: The time to complete the test in seconds to the nearest two decimals is recorded. The score is the best time of three trials.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Seated upright in chair. The total time it takes to stand fully up, walk at a regular pace to a line 3 meters away.  Turn and return to the chair and sit back down.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Seated upright in chair with arms crossed in front. Record the total number of controlled complete sit-to-stand reps completed in 30 seconds.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Plank Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps at mid-calf length
  • Body in plank position, facing floor
  • Feet under anchor point, hands (elbows) under shoulders, engage core, lift knees off the ground
  • Shoulder blades in back pockets, keep body straight
  • Using elbows and forearms, pull body and head toward ‘front wall’. Be careful not to bring shoulders to ears.
  • Using elbows and forearms, push body and toward ‘back wall’.
Common Error(s): Sagging lower back | Not engaging core | Arching the upper back
Spotting: Instability training
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Side plank Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps at mid-calf length
  • Lie on side, elbow placed under shoulders, body lengthened, heel of top foot touching toe on bottom foot.
  • Lift to side plank, keep weight over forearm/hand
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Torso collapses forward
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Obliques, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: BOSU Mountain Climber | TRX Plank Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps at mid-calf length
  • Body facing floor
  • Feet under anchor point, hands under shoulders, engage core, lift knees off the ground
  • Bring one knee toward chest, drive hips toward sky, keep opposite hip and leg straight
  • Extend leg back to plank position, bring opposite knee toward chest
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Plank | Stability Ball Bird Dog Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • In plank position, maintain good posture and core engagement throughout the movement.
  • Avoiding rotation, either tap shoulder, raise leg, raise arm (or bilateral leg and arm).
  • Progress to pulling object through (below torso). Using arm from opposing side, pull a ball or bag across ground. Keep the hips stable.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back | Rounded shoulders
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Plank | Stability Ball Plank Progressions: Rollout | Stability Ball Pike
Key Teaching Points
  1. Kneel in front of stability ball with your knees shoulder width apart
  2. Place your forearms on the ball, hands in loose fists
  3. Keeping your back flat, brace your core and slowly complete circles with elbows as if you are ‘stirring a pot’ that is in front of you
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps fully lengthened, facing away from anchor
  • Extend arms in front of shoulders choose appropriate foot position
  • Similar exercise as above, except one arm goes in fly position as other presses
  • Maintain plank, lower body by bending elbows and keeping shoulders down and back, at bottom of press extend one arm out to the side, maintaining alignment
  • Drive back to starting position by pressing with one arm and flying with the other
  • Repeat alternating arms
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Triceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps mid to long length, facing away from anchor
  • Extend arms in front of shoulders, palms down, chose appropriate foot stance (staggered stance is more stable)
  • Keep elbows up and stationary, lower body down until thumbs are next to temples
  • Drive through palms, extend arms, maintain plank
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Row Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Fully shortened straps, facing anchor
  • Single strap mode complete TRX Row
  • One arm pulling, the other on the hip
  • Engaged through the core, maintain shoulder and hip alignment
  • Instability is too much either widen stance or stagger step
  • Resistance is too much move feet away from the anchor
  • Eyes looking high
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: TRX Inverted Row Single Arm
Key Teaching Points
  • Fully shortened straps, facing anchor
  • Bring torso under anchor so pendulum is in neutral position
  • Engaged through core, initial pull with scapular-J (shoulders in back pocket). Watch that shoulders don’t creep to ears and that hips stay aligned with body.
  • Eyes looking up at anchor
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Inverted Row Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Fully shortened straps, facing anchor
  • Single strap mode complete TRX Inverted Row
  • One arm pulling, the other on the hip
  • Engaged through the core, maintain shoulder and hip alignment
  • Eyes looking up
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps mid-length, facing anchor
  • Offset foot position (wider offset has more stability), start with arms in Y position, tall standing, shoulders down and back, tension on suspension trainer
  • Slower lower arms down, keep them extended, pull shoulders down and back
  • With straight arms, drive knuckles back to T position
  • Slowly lower arms down, keep them extended, pull shoulders down and back
  • With straight arms, drive knuckles back to Y position
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Lie on your back with your lower legs (close to the ankle) on a foam roll, placing band around one foot. Using the band, raise the leg (keeping it relaxed) as high as possible without the knee bending.
  • Raise the other leg up to the level of the assisted leg.
  • Lower the unassisted leg slowly in a controlled manner while maintaining the toe up position of the leg and foot until you reach the elevated surface.
  • Make sure the low back and pelvis maintain position during the movement.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Have a relaxed neutral neck, do not get pushed into neck flexion.
  • Begin rotating the top shoulder, while maintaining posture, contact with the floor, and breathing.
  • Let your breathing sink you further into the stretch while you actively stretch.
  • After 5 deep breath cycles begin to rotate back to starting position
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • This exercise can be done from a half kneeling, tall kneeling, or standing position depending on your goals and ability
  • This will work hip stabilization, core engagement, and shoulder mobility
  • Pick up a kettlebell upside down
  • With an engaged core and a tall, upright posture
  • Pick up the KB in front of your face and circle your head in a slow, controlled manner
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Torso collapses forward | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Soleus Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Begin in the narrow half kneeling position with a dowel in front of the 4th toe.
  • While staying tall, take the knee outside of the dowel and drive it forward.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Begin in a side lying position beside the KB.
  • Grab KB with one hand underneath the handle and the other hand on top of the KB.
  • Roll over into a supine position with the kettlebell resting on the abdomen.
  • Once in a comfortable position, press the kettlebell straight up with both hands and place the hand that is on top of the handle on the ground. The final position should be that the legs and unloaded arm are between 30-45 degrees from midline on the surface with one arm pressing the kettlebell vertical.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Begin in tall kneeling posture, hold KB either anterior or posterior (depending on turn your doing).
  • Begin with head turns – turn the head to the right or left in a smooth controlled manner
  • Turn shoulder (and head) with stationary KB
  • Turn shoulder (and head) with moving KB
  • For all turns hips stay forward, maintain good posture, core engagement, and deep breathing
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Plank Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • In plank position, maintain good posture and core engagement throughout the movement.
  • Avoiding rotation, complete single arm row
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Neutral pelvis and tall spine, shoulders are depressed and the sternum is out and head and neck are neutral.
  • The narrower the feet are placed, the more challenging the exercise.
  • Inhale and press the KB overhead by depressing and retracting the shoulder blade, extending the elbow and the arms.
  • Once overhead, make sure the arms are in neutral position and the body remains in static position.
  • Make sure the descend of the KB is slow and controlled
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Consider a self-spotting option by placing dowel (wall, chair) in hand opposite to leg on the ground.
  • When able, hold KB in opposite hand to leg on the ground.
  • Maintain an upright and neutral spine and head.
  • Lower like a ‘bobbing bird’ keeping the back leg, spine and head in a straight line.  Lower until you feel tension in the posterior aspect of the leg.
  • Slowly come back up by engaging the gluts and hamstrings and continuing to maintain a straight line as described above.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Done to improve body awareness
  • Reach for ceiling, stretching the arms as high as possible, palms facing forward.
  • Bend forward so that the fingertips touch the toes.
  • Phase 2 is to elevate heels
  • Phase 3, with heels elevated, in deep squat position, elevate one arm at a time, looking up to elevated arm and supporting self with the other arm on block.
  • Then raise both arms looking forward
  • Stand up
  • Maintain core engagement, posture and breathing throughout.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hip Abductors
Exercise
Regressions: Sit-to-Stand Squat Progressions: Goblet Squat
Key Teaching Points
  • Create a closed loop band (i.e. place a knot in the band) at a length that is snug when the client’s knees are close together.
  • This closed loop band can be created first and then have the client carefully step into the loop and move it into position around the knees OR have the client sit down on a chair/bench and tie the knot while the band is in place.
  • The band should be placed just above the knee.  Special caution should be taken so that the band does not ride up or down and/or rub harshly on the skin.
  • Assume a normal foot (approx. or slightly wider than shoulder width) squatting position, however, first engage hip abductors with a special focus on glut activation to abduct the hips so that the knees are aligned with the feet.  This will require an isometric contraction to hold the knees in proper alignment.
  • While holding hip abduction, execute a deep squat
Common Error(s): Valgus knees | Torso collapses forward
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Single handle mode, body standing facing the anchor
  • Start with a wide stance and a high elbow position
  • Keep elbow tight to the body for start, bringing your fist to about chest height
  • For a bigger challenge, inch feet forward to create a larger angle with your body, eyes looking at the anchor
  • Lower body back so that arms are in a T (extend elbows), keeping core engaged (plank position), eyes follow hand to the floor
  • Rotate the hips and shoulders back to anchor, then bend the elbow to bring fist to chest as the other hand goes toward the strap
  • Maintain an engaged core and scapular retraction with the rotation, drive the movement from core and back without turning it into an arm-dominant exercise
  • To make it easier use an off-set foot position
  • As a progression, give client a hand to reach for and push down (he/she has to resist)
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Rounded shoulders | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps at mid-length
  • Body position is standing sideways
  • Offset feet, foot closest to the anchor point forward
  • Grab the handle with the outside hand and cover with the inside hand, pull arms into chest
  • Rotate body toward anchor point, then slowly lower body by extending arms, maintaining a stiff core and lengthened spine
  • Rotate body to upright position with arms extended
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal, Whole Body Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Hip Flexors, Obliques, Pec Major, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Mountain Climber | BOSU Push Up Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps at mid-calf length, single strap mode
  • Body position is ground facing
  • Left foot in foot cradle, directly under anchor point, right toes on ground, hands under shoulders, core engaged
  • Lower chest to the ground simultaneously bring right knee to right elbow
  • Drive through palms, push chest from ground, return right leg to start
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Barbell Rotation Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Stand a few feet away from a wall with side toward the wall
  • Hold a medicine ball with both hands at hip furthest from wall in athletic stance.
  • Rotate shoulders away from wall (wind up), immediately reverse direction, turning shoulders, driving through hip and release the ball toward the wall as fast as possible
  • Receive the ball on the bounce and repeat
  • Feel the power coming from your hip and core as you release the ball
  • Pivot your feet as necessary to turn and drive toward wall
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Split Squat | Bulgarian Split Squat Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are at mid-calf length
  • Body position is standing facing away from anchor
  • Foot is toe in (toe-hold) – bottom of shoe on handle
  • Keep the shin on your forward leg as vertical as possible, keeping the chest up (don’t hinge hip), focusing on backward movement, into a rear lunge
  • When you extend your knee focus on driving your heel into the floor
  • Ensure hips remain aligned as both knees bend
  • Ensure weight stays on the front leg
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Foot/ankle collapse | Trendelenburg Hip Drop
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are at mid-calf length
  • Body position is standing facing away from anchor
  • Foot is toe in (toe-hold) – bottom of shoe on handle
  • Start in bottom of lunge position – balance with hands on either side of front foot
  • Drive rear leg back (extend knee) balancing on front leg (and hands)
  • While maintaining core engagement and balance, flex knee to bring rear leg back to starting position and stand (extend front knee)
  • Ensure weight stays on the front leg, torso remains straight, and front knee doesn’t collapse inward
Common Error(s): Arching the upper back | Not engaging core | Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Lateral Lunge
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Body position is standing facing anchor
  • Stack elbows under shoulders, legs in a wide stance with full hip extension, core engaged, maintain tension on the TRX
  • Keeping the shin on your working leg as vertical as possible, keep the chest up (don’t hinge hip), focus on lateral movement, into a side lunge
  • Maintain a stable pelvis and core engagement throughout movement
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Trendelenburg Hip Drop
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lunge Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Crossover Lunge | Single Leg Squat
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Body position is standing facing anchor
  • Plant one foot firmly on the ground and raise your opposing leg until your knee is parallel with your hip
  • Your planted leg should be centered with the anchor
  • While maintaining a vertical shin on the working leg, lower yourself down and cross the knee of your non-working leg behind the knee of your working leg – your inner thighs will touch on the way down
  • To stand back up, extend your hips forward while keeping the shin of your working leg vertical
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Body position is standing facing anchor
  • Stack elbows under shoulders, legs in a wide stance with full hip extension, core engaged, maintain tension on the TRX
  • Lower to one side, bending at the hip and knee while keeping the opposite leg straight and toes pulled up toward knee
  • Keep torso tall, drive through heel of bent leg, fully extend hips at top of movement before lowering to other side
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Dowel Deadlift | Pull Through Progressions: Deadlift | Swing
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps at mid-length – a fully extended strap makes this exercise harder
  • Body position is facing the anchor – the closer to the anchor the easier (can do this exercise under anchor)
  • Start with slight bend in knee, hinged at hip, keeping arms vertical under shoulder
  • Extend into a standing plank
  • Hinge, flexing at hips while keeping core and traps engaged, back to starting position
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Rounded lower back | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gluteals, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Hip Press (Bridge) | Single Leg Bridge Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-calf length
  • Body starts on ground, facing up, hips slightly off ground, arms straight, palms up, heels in under anchor with knees extended
  • Flex at the knees to complete the leg curl
  • Extend the hips to form a straight line with knees and torso
  • Progression is to bring arms together in front of body
  • Ensure there is not an arch in the lower back in bridge
Common Error(s): Arching the upper back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core (rotation), Hinge (hip) Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Deltoid (Posterior), Gluteals, Hamstrings, Quadratus Lumborum
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Windmill
Key Teaching Points
  • This is a regression for the KB hinge
  • Hold the strap, single strap mode, in hand further away from anchor.
  • Keeping the arm in the strap locked out, push your butt out in the direction of the locked-out arm. Slowly lean until you can touch the floor by your foot on the side of your free hand. You will be rotating and hinging toward the anchor.
  • Keep your eyes on the hand holding the strap.
  • Pause for a second after reaching the ground and reverse the motion back to the starting position.
Common Error(s): Rounded lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization, Hinge (hip) Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Hip Flexors
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Hinge Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps mid-calf length
  • Start in hands down plank position (toes in)
  • Keeping legs extended and core engaged, flex at the hips bringing torso vertical eyes looking at feet
  • Squeeze hard at the top (in pink position), push the ground away from you to get there
  • Slowly extend hips to straighten back into plank, eyes to floor
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Hamstrings Synergist(s): Gluteals, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Hip Bridge | Single Leg Bridge Progressions: TRX Hip Press (Bridge) | TRX Hamstring Curl to Hip Press (Bridge)
Key Teaching Points
  • Lie flat on the floor on your back with your hands by your side and knees bent (between 70-90 degrees), feet on the bosu
  • Drive through your heels, lift your hips off the floor while keeping your back straight
  • Breathe out as you extend your hips.
  • Hold at the top and slowly go back to your starting position.
  • This can be done one leg at a time – the lower the unsupported leg the higher the intensity. Be careful not to allow the opposite hip to drop when using only one leg
  • Be careful not to arch the lower back – if the lower back is arching do this one leg at a time while holding the other leg (hip flexion) to the chest
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Arching the upper back
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Sit-to-Stand Squat Progressions: Goblet Squat | TRX Single Leg Squat
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Body position is facing anchor
  • Elbows stacked under shoulder, feet hip width apart
  • Lower hips back and down, feet firmly on the ground
  • Drive through feet, extend knees
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Squat Progressions: TRX Single Leg Squat | Front Squat
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Body position is facing anchor
  • Arms extended overhead, tension on straps, engaging through the shoulders and back body, feet hip width apart
  • Lower hips down and back, keep tension on straps, arms in line with ears, feet firmly on the ground
  • Drive through heels, extend knees
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Squat Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Body position is facing anchor
  • Elbows stacked under shoulder, feet hip width apart
  • Lower hips back and down, feet firmly on the ground
  • Drive through heels, extending knees
  • And jump
  • Land into starting position
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions: Single Leg Squat
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Body position is facing anchor
  • Elbows stacked under shoulder, weight in four corners of left foot, right leg extended will heel off ground
  • Lower hips down and back, left knee over midfoot
  • Drive through left foot, extending the knee
  • To regress this movement, use a stagger step and put as little support as necessary on front foot heel
Common Error(s): Torso collapses forward | Valgus knees | Trendelenburg Hip Drop
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gastrocnemius, Gluteals, Hip Flexors, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Straps are mid-length
  • Body facing away from the anchor, straps under arms, just below armpit area, walk back into forward lean with plank engaged
  • Drive right leg back, flexing the opposite (left) knee
  • Bring right leg up into high knee as the left knee is extended (drive right knee forward as it is flexed)
  • Continue bringing right leg back and driving the right knee
  • Switch legs
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Forward Head Posture | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hip Adductors
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat | TRX Overhead Squat Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  • Symmetrical stance, knees bent, one arm extended horizontally with shoulder, find active plank
  • Maintaining long spine, pull body down into the squat
  • Extend knees and drive up with hips and chest and shoulders moving at the same speed
Common Error(s): Valgus knees | Torso collapses forward | Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Transverse Abdominus, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Plank | Push Up Progressions: Plyometric Push Up
Key Teaching Points
  • Similar to plank with shoulder taps, but add push-up
  • Maintain hip and shoulder alignment throughout exercise
  • This exercise can be a regression of a plyometric push-up
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Sagging lower back | Forward Head Posture
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Rhomboids, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

This exercise is for clients with gripping and/or grasping challenges.  Client can either lay supine on bench or stand in a bent over position (similar to a bent over row).  Make sure to complete row with proper scapular retraction.  Consider supporting head with towel under forehead for comfort.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical Target: Deltoids (Anterior) Synergist(s): Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. At the start of each rep focus on squeezing your shoulder blades together
  2. Start across your upper chest below your chin,
  3.  With your chest up, push your hands directly to the sky
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Chest stretch, both sides, seated, with partner

  • Client can be in chair or on the floor. If using a chair, ensure the chair is very sturdy. Client laces fingers of hands behind head.
  • Trainer positions self behind client to offer resistance to the isometric contraction of chest with arms coming over client’s arms (see picture). Trainer should be looking at client’s face with a mirror throughout movement. Ensure client does not rotate spine or engage in extensive lower back arch.
  • Hold isometric contraction against trainer’s arms for 6 seconds.
  • Client then contracts opposing muscles while relaxing chest, moving elbows back further, deepening the stretch slowly.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
  • When engaging in partner PNF, communication about pain/discomfort it crucial. Pain should not be felt during this movement.

Chest self-stretch, both sides, in doorway

  • Use the doorway or corner of the room so that both sides simultaneously and elbows are supported.
  • Client lunges into stretch without rotating spine or experiencing lower back arch.
  • Client holds isometric contraction against wall for 6 seconds.
  • Contract opposing muscles, relax chest, move chest closer to wall or through doorway, deepen the stretch slowly.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Hip Flexors stretch, supine, with partner

  • Can be done with the client on back, side, or stomach.
  • In all facilitated stretching, the trainer should be aware of the posture, knee and hip alignment, and avoid lower back arch.
  • Trainer should be in place to offer resistance to the isometric contraction of the hip flexors by placing hands proximal to knee joint. Ensure the client’s hips stay aligned, no arch in lower back and in good posture.
  • Client holds isometric contraction of attempting to drive knee forward or up for 6 seconds.
  • Client then contracts opposing muscles while flexing knee, deepening the stretch slowly.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
  • When engaging in any partner PNF, communication about pain/discomfort it crucial. Pain should not be felt during the movement.

Hip Flexors self-stretch, lunge

  • Start in deep lunge, knee to ground for stability. Keep upper body up straight, maintain alignment of knees and hips, and avoid extensive lower back arch.
  • Find angle of hip extension where stretch is felt. Use a dowel for support and balance.
  • Begin slowly to attempt to drive knee into floor. If stretch is done standing, then keep foot planted but focus on the feeling of driving knee up. Engage in an isometric contraction of the hip flexors for 6 seconds.
  • Following the 6 seconds, contract opposing muscles, increasing the hip extension (watch that the lower back doesn’t arch), deepening the hip flexor stretch.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
  • Self-stretch can also be done side-lying with a stretching strap (i.e., bottom leg of brettzel). Client must be careful of hip and knee alignment in this position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Quadriceps stretch, prone, with partner

  • Client in prone position on massage bed, with knee is flexed as far as possible.
  • Watch the alignment of the knee joint, gently find stretch barrier as heel comes closer to buttocks.
  • Can place a pillow under stretchers hips to reduce discomfort.
  • Trainer should be in place to offer resistance to the isometric contraction of the quads by placing hands or shoulder against the client’s shin. Ensure the client keeps hips flat on the table during the entire sequence.
  • Client holds isometric contraction of attempting to straighten knee for 6 seconds.
  • Client then contracts opposing muscles while flexing knee, deepening the stretch slowly.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
  • When engaging in any partner PNF, communication about pain/discomfort it crucial. Position the mirror to see the client’s face and pain should not be felt during the movement.

Quadriceps self-stretch, standing

  • Standing quadriceps stretch: ensure good posture and no torque in the knee.
  • Client holds shin with hand or stretching strap while ensuring no arch in lower back and not bringing foot outside of hip.
  • From this position, attempt to straighten leg again resistance, hold this isometric contraction for 6 seconds.
  • Client then contracts opposing muscles while flexing knee, deepening the stretch slowly.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Hamstrings stretch, straight leg, supine, with partner

  • Client in supine position on massage bed, legs extended. Lift leg to be stretched as high as possible with extended knee. Leg not being stretched can be bent with foot flat on table if this is more comfortable.
  • Trainer positions self to offer resistance to the isometric contraction of the hamstrings. Ensure hips are kept flat on table during the entire sequence.
  • Trainer hold the toe in dorsiflexion with other hand proximal to knee joint.
  • Client holds isometric contraction against trainer’s shoulder/chest for 6 seconds.
  • Client then contracts opposing muscles while lifting leg higher, keeping the knee extended and foot in dorsiflexion.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
  • When engaging in any partner PNF, communication about pain/discomfort it crucial. Pain should not be felt during the movement.

Hamstring self-stretch, supine, with stretching strap

  • Lie on back on floor, lift leg as high as possible, keeping the knee straight and foot in dorsiflexion. Keep both hips flat on the bed during the entire sequence. The leg not being stretched can have a bent knee with foot flat on floor.
  • Use a towel of stretching strap wrapped around the arch of foot on leg being stretched. Flex at the hip to the point that a stretch is felt.
  • Begin slowly to attempt to push heel toward the floor, engage in an isometric contraction of the hamstrings for 6 seconds.
  • Following the 6 seconds, contract opposing muscles, and lift leg higher, deepening the stretch.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Gastrocnemius and soleus stretches, prone, with partner

  • Client in prone position on massage bed.
  • For gastrocnemius, the client’s leg is extended off the end of the massage bad. For soleus, the client’s knee is flexed.
  • Trainer offer resistance against isometric contract with forearms/body. Client attempts to plantar-flex foot while trainer resists.
  • Client holds isometric contraction for 6 seconds.
  • Client then contracts opposing muscles while putting foot deeper into dorsiflexion, keeping the knee extended for gastrocnemius and flexed for soleus.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
  • When engaging in any partner PNF, communication about pain/discomfort it crucial. Position the mirror to see the client’s face and pain should not be felt during the movement.

Gastrocnemius and soleus stretches, seated, with stretching strap

  • Stretches can be done similar to above with stretching strap in seated position or done against wall in standing position.
  • Client holds isometric contraction for 6 seconds.
  • Client then contracts opposing muscles while putting foot deeper into dorsiflexion, keeping the knee extended for gastrocnemius and flexed for soleus.
  • Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds depending on ability.
  • Repeat until stretch is held for about 40 seconds.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Instructions

  1. Ask the client to grasp the grip between the fingers and palm at the base of the thumb.
  2. Adjust the grip so the second joint of the fingers fits snugly under the handle and takes the weight of the instrument. Lock the grip in place.
  3. Have the client hold the dynamometer in-line with the forearm at the level of the thigh, away from the body.
  4. Place a marker on the wall and ask the client to concentrate on it as they squeeze maximally on the hand dynamometer to exert maximal force. Have the client exhale while squeezing (to avoid build-up of intrathoracic pressure).
  5. Neither the hand nor the dynamometer should touch the body or any other object.
  6. Measure each hand twice, alternating hands. Record the maximum scores for each hand to the nearest kilogram.

Scoring and Recording

Combine the maximum scores from each of the left and right hands. Record the result and associated Health Benefit (from the table) on the Client Information Sheet.

Rating GRIP STRENGTH (kg)
15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69
M F M F M F M F M F M F
Excellent ≥108 ≥68 ≥115 ≥70 ≥115 ≥71 ≥108 ≥69 ≥101 ≥61 ≥100 ≥54
Very Good 98-107 60-67 104-114 63-69 104-114 63-70 97-107 61-68 92-100 54-60 91-99 48-53
Good 90-97 53-59 95-103 60-62 95-103 58-62 88-96 54-60 84-91 49-53 84-90 45-47
Fair 79-89 48-52 84-94 52-59 84-94 51-57 80-87 49-53 76-83 45-48 73-83 41-44
Needs Improvement ≤78 ≤47 ≤83 ≤51 ≤83 ≤50 ≤79 ≤48 ≤75 ≤44 ≤72 ≤40

*Grip scores are for left- and right-hand combined.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Instructions

  1. Advise the client to perform as many consecutive push-ups as they can (no time limit).
  2. Ask the client to lie facedown on the mat with legs together, hands pointing forward and positioned under the shoulders. Push-up by fully extending the arms. Men use their toes as the pivot point. Women use their knees as the pivot point, keeping their lower legs, ankles and feet (plantar flexed) in contact with the mat.
  3. For both men and women, the upper body must be kept in a straight line, returning to the starting position with chin to the mat. Stomach and thighs do not touch the mat. Advise the client that incorrect repetitions do not count.
  4. Instruct the client to direct their concentration towards the floor as they complete each push-up.
  5. Proper technique is essential! Have clients practice 1-2 repetitions to check for proper technique before beginning.

Stop the test if a client feels any pain or discomfort, appears to strain forcibly or is unable to maintain the proper push-up technique over two consecutive repetitions. Do not count repetitions with improper technique.

Advise the client to exhale during upward phase of the push-up and to avoid holding his/her breath.

Scoring and Recording

Record the client’s total number of push-ups and associated Health Benefit Rating in the Client Information Sheet.

Rating PUSH-UPs
15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69
M F M F M F M F M F M F
Excellent ≥39 ≥33 ≥36 ≥30 ≥30 ≥27 ≥25 ≥24 ≥21 ≥21 ≥18 ≥17
Very Good 29-38 25-32 29-35 21-29 22-29 20-26 17-24 15-23 13-20 11-20 11-17 12-16
Good 23-28 18-24 22-28 15-20 17-21 13-19 13-16 11-14 10-12 7-10 8-10 5-11
Fair 18-22 12-17 17-21 10-14 12-16 8-12 10-12 5-10 7-9 2-6 5-7 2-4
Needs Improvement ≤17 ≤11 ≤16 ≤9 ≤11 ≤7 ≤9 ≤4 ≤6 ≤1 ≤4 ≤1
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Instructions

  1. Have the client stand erect with feet flat on the floor perpendicular to a wall marked with a measuring tape.
  2. Ask the client to reach as high as possible on the tape with the arm and fingers fully extended, palm towards the wall and feet flat on the floor close to the wall. Record this stand and reach height to the nearest 0.5 cm.
  3. Next, ask the client to move a safe distance away from the wall (with the hand on the hip, the elbow should barely reach the wall).
  4. Have the client bring the arms down and back, bending the knees into a balanced semi-squat. The client should pause (1-2 seconds) in the semi-squat position and then jump as high as possible with the arms moving forward and up to touch the tape at the highest point they can reach.
  5. Instruct the client to concentrate on the tape as they jump as high as possible.

Allow the client three trials, with a rest period of 10-15 seconds between each. No run up, step up or pre-jump is permitted (feet flat on the floor to start).

Scoring and Recording

Subtract the stand and reach measurement from the best of the three jump and reach trials to get the maximum difference.

Calculate Peak Leg Power in watts (W) using the formula:

Peak Leg Power (W) = [60.7 x jump height (cm)] + [45.3 x body mass (kg)] – 2055

Record the Peak Leg Power and the associated Health Benefit Rating on the Client Information Sheet.

Rating LEG POWER (Watts)
15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69
M F M F M F M F M F M F
Excellent ≥4644 ≥3167 ≥5094 ≥3250 ≥4860 ≥3193 ≥4320 ≥2675 ≥4019 ≥2559 ≥3764 ≥2475
Very Good 4185-4683 2795-3166 4640-5953 2804-3249 4389-4859 2550-3192 3700-4319 2288-2674 3567-4018 2161-2558 3291-3763 1717-2474
Good 3858-3857 2399-2794 4297-4939 2478-2803 3967-4388 2335-2549 3242-3699 2101-2287 2937-3566 1701-2160 2848-3290 1317-1717
Fair 3323-3857 2156-2398 3775-4296 2271-2477 3485-3966 2147-2334 2708-3241 1688-2100 2512-2936 1386-1700 2383-2842 1198-1316
Needs Improvement ≤3322 ≤2155 ≤3774 ≤2270 ≤3484 ≤2146 ≤2707 ≤1687 ≤2511 ≤1385 ≤2382 ≤1197
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Obliques
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Make sure wheelchair/chair is secure.  Extend a fully extended arm overhead and then lean to the opposite side.  Make sure not to tip the chair.  Stretch should be felt in the lat and upper trunk.  Don’t twist.  Remaining in frontal plane.  Alternate sides, each time improving range of motion.  Pain free.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization, Gait Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Quadratus Lumborum, Rectus Abdominus, Rhomboids, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start by swinging the bell with a tight grip so you balance it with the bottom pointed up.
    • You can use your other hand to stabilize the kettlebell at the top before you start walking.
  2. Make sure that are keeping your abs tight and your shoulder blade packed by squeezing down through your armpit and lats.
  3. Continue to squeeze the grip of the kettlebell and walk smoothly.
  4. Switch arms after each set.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Goblet Squat | TRX Squat Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Submaximal strength testing can be used to estimate 1 RM performance for exercisers who have inadequate experience handling heavy free weights. Generally when using a submaximal load, it is customary to use a weight that causes a client to reach momentary muscle failure within 6-10 repetitions.

For the purpose of our predictors, we will be using the Baechle (2000) equation: weight (lbs) x (1 + (o.o33 x # of reps))

Remember, that before performing any more strenuous exercise to complete a proper warm-up.

Common Error(s): Valgus knees
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Hip Adductors Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Place your feet into your squat stance.
  2. Hinge your hips back and go down and grab under your toes to achieve a hamstring stretch in this toe touch progression.
  3. After accentuating this hamstring stretch for a second or so, bend your knees and drop your butt down into a squat stance, pulling yourself down into this position with your hands.
  4. As you reach the bottom of your squat, your knees should drive out, chest should raise up and your spine should remain in neutral alignment.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hip Flexors, Quadriceps, Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: TRX Lunge Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Lunge with Overhead Reach

  1. Start with a shoulder width stance.
  2. Step forward into a lunge, with knees bent to 90 degrees.
  3. Pause, then extending arms above head reach back into torso extension feeling a stretch in the rectus abdominis and hip flexors.
  4. Complete the lunge and return to a standing position.
  5. Alternate legs and repeat the steps above.

Lunge with Side Reach.

Complete the same steps as above, only in bottom of lunge reach up and across your body with the opposite arm (from the knee that is leading).

Lunge and Twist

In bottom of lunge, extend arms and rotate to both sides in a slow and controlled fashion.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

General instructions for skinfold calipers

  • Caliper should be placed 1-2 cm away from the thumb and finger
    • perpendicular to the skin fold
    • halfway between the crest and the base of the fold
  • Release the caliper lever so its spring tension is exerted on the skinfold
  • Maintain pinch while reading caliper
  • Read dial on caliper
    • Between 1 to 2 seconds after lever has been released
    • Nearest 0.5 mm (if using Harpenden calipers, take to nearest 0.2 mm)
  • Rotate through measurement sites
    • allows time for skin and underlying fat to regain normal thickness
  • If readings for a given site differ by more than 2 mm, take a 3rd reading.

Jackson-Pollock 7 Site

With this procedure, you will take all measurements on the right side of the body, while your subject is standing.

  • Chest— Males: take a diagonal fold midway between the nipple and upper part of the pectoral muscle at the armpit.  Females: the measurement is taken 1/3 of the way between the nipple and the armpit (closer to the armpit).
  • Axilla— The axilla area is on the side of the upper chest. A measurement here should be taken as a vertical fold directly under the center of the armpit and perpendicular to the nipple.
  • Triceps— Have the subject bend the elbow to 90 degrees and mark the point midway between the top of the shoulder and elbow. Then, measure a vertical fold (with the calipers at a 90 degree angle) at that midway point with the arm hanging naturally at the subject’s side.
  • Subscapular— Measurements of the subscapular area should be taken as a diagonal fold (calipers held at a 45 degree angle) across the back, just below the shoulder blade.
  • Iliac Crest — A diagonal fold at the intersection of a vertical line between the spinal (front part of iliac crest, the protrusion of the hip bone) and front part of the armpit) and a horizontal line at the top of the iliac crest.
  • Abdominal— A measurement in the abdominal area should be a vertical fold one inch to right of navel.
  • Thigh— Take a vertical fold on the standing leg, midway between the kneecap and the crease where the thigh meets the hip.
Jackson/Pollock 7-Site Caliper Method formula
Male[1] BF%=495/(1.112-(0.00043499*s)+(0.00000055*s*s)-(0.00028826*a))-450
Female[2] BF%=495/(1.097-(0.00046971*s)+(0.00000056*s*s)-(0.00012828*a))-450
Variables s = sum of 7 skinfold mm
a = age

1. Jackson, A.S. & Pollock, M.L. (1978) Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. British J of Nutrition, 40: p497-504.

2. Jackson, et al. (1980) Generalized equations for predicting body density of women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 12: p175-182.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Transverse Abdominus Synergist(s): Gluteals, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Follow same instructions as 4 point bird dog but now include a dowel with three points of contact (gluts, t spine and back of head).  This will allow the trainer to ensure the client is maintaining a neutral spine and avoiding excessive extension of the back.

Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Arching the upper back
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Any kind of sports specific activity for a period of time.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Tandem Gait
Participants are instructed to stand with their feet together behind a starting line (the test is best done with footwear removed). Then, they walk in a forward direction as quickly and as accurately as possible along a 38mm wide (sports tape), 3 meter line with an alternate foot heel-to-toe gait ensuring that they approximate their heel and toe on each step. Once they cross the end of the 3m line, they turn 180 degrees and return to the starting point using the same gait. A total of 4 trials are done and the best time is retained. Athletes should complete the test in 14 seconds. Athletes fail the test if they step off the line, have a separation between their heel and toe, or if they touch or grab the examiner or an object. In this case, the time is not recorded and the trial repeated, if appropriate.

1. Schneiders, A.G., Sullivan, S.J., Gray, A., Hammond-Tooke, G. & M cCrory, P. Normative values for 16-37 year old subjects for three clinical measures of motor
performance used in the assessment of sports concussions. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2010; 13(2): 196 – 201.
2. Schneiders, A.G., Sullivan, S.J., Kvarnstrom. J.K., Olsson, M., Yden. T. & M arshall, S.W. The effect of footwear and sports-surface on dynamic neurological screening in sport-related concussion. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2010; 13(4): 382 – 386

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

This balance testing is based on a modified version of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS)5. A stopwatch or watch with a second hand is required for this testing.
“I am now going to test your balance. Please take your shoes off, roll up your pant legs above ankle (if applicable), and remove any ankle taping (if applicable). This test will consist of three twenty second tests with different stances.“
(a) Double leg stance:
“The first stance is standing with your feet together with your hands on your hips and with your eyes closed. You should try to maintain stability in that position for 20 seconds. I will be counting the number of times you move out of this position. I will start timing when you are
set and have closed your eyes.“
(b) Single leg stance:
“If you were to kick a ball, which foot would you use? [This will be the dominant foot] Now stand on your non-dominant foot. The dominant leg should be held in approximately 30 degrees of hip flexion and 45 degrees of knee flexion. Again, you should try to maintain stability for 20 seconds with your hands on your hips and your eyes closed. I will be counting the number of times you move out of this position. If you stumble out of this position, open your eyes and return to the start position and continue balancing. I will start timing when you are set and have closed your eyes.“
(c) Tandem stance:
“Now stand heel-to-toe with your non-dominant foot in back. Your weight should be evenly distributed across both feet. Again, you should try to maintain stability for 20 seconds with your hands on your hips and your eyes closed. I will be counting the number of times you move out of this position. If you stumble out of this position, open your eyes and return to the start position and continue balancing. I will start timing when you are set and have closed your eyes.”

Balance testing – types of errors
1. Hands lifted off iliac crest
2. Opening eyes
3. Step, stumble, or fall
4. Moving hip into > 30 degrees abduction
5. Lifting forefoot or heel
6. Remaining out of test position > 5 sec
Each of the 20-second trials is scored by counting the errors, or deviations from the proper stance, accumulated by the athlete. The examiner will begin counting
errors only after the individual has assumed the proper start position. The modified BESS is calculated by adding one error point for each error during the three
20-second tests. The maximum total number of errors for any single condition is 10. If a athlete commits multiple errors simultaneously, only one error is recorded but the athlete should quickly return to the testing position, and counting should resume once subject is set. Subjects that are unable to maintain the testing procedure for a minimum of five seconds at the start are assigned the highest possible score, ten, for that testing condition.  OPTION : For further assessment, the same 3 stances can be performed on a surface of medium density foam (e.g., approximately 50 cm x 40 cm x 6 cm).

1. Guskiewicz KM. Assessment of postural stability following sport-related concussion. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2003; 2: 24 – 30.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Upper limb coordination
Finger-to-nose (FTN) task:
“I am going to test your coordination now. Please sit comfortably on the chair with your eyes open and your arm (either right or left) outstretched (shoulder flexed to 90 degrees and elbow and fingers extended), pointing in front of you. When I give a start signal, I would like you to perform five successive finger to nose repetitions using your index finger to touch the tip of the nose, and then return to the starting position, as quickly and as accurately as possible.”

Scoring: 5 correct repetitions in < 4 seconds = 1
Note for testers: Athletes fail the test if they do not touch their nose, do not fully extend their elbow or do not perform five repetitions. Failure should be scored as 0.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

This original Cunningham Faulkner test requires the athlete to run on a treadmill set at a speed of 8 miles/hour and an incline of 20% (11.3°) until unable to continue

  • The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
  • Sets the treadmill speed to 8.0 miles/hr (12.9 km/hr) and an incline of 20% (11.3°)
  • The athlete conducts a few practice starts getting onto the treadmill at the test speed
  • Give the command “GO”, starts the stopwatch and the athlete commences the test
  • Stop the stopwatch when the athlete is unable to continue

In the modified Anaerobic Speed Test (mAST, Murao 2018), athletes will use the values of 15% grade and 9 mph (8 mph females), allowing this test to be completed on most commercial treadmills.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Gait Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Sled Push

  • Load your pushing sled with the desired weight.
  • Take an athletic posture, leaning into the sled with your arms fully extended, grasping the handles. Push the sled as fast as possible, focusing on extending your hips and knees to strengthen your posterior chain.
    • Sprinting will enhance speed and cardiovascular capacity.
    • Walking slow and controlled will improve strength.

Sled Pull

  • Load a sled with the desired weight, attaching a rope or TRX straps to the sled that you can hold onto.
  • Begin the exercise by moving backwards for a given distance. Leaning back, extend through the legs for short steps to move as quickly as possible.

Both of these movements can be completed with a Prowler type sled, or a weight bench.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Pre-Exercise

  • Complete client prescreening
  • Strap a heart rate monitor on your client
  • Explain purpose of test
  • Discuss your client’s current experience with CV training to determine a starting speed for the treadmill.
  • Explain that the warm-up will be 3-4 minutes at no incline, followed by a short exercise session of jogging at no incline.
  • Explain that both the warm-up and jogging speed will be at a self-selected pace.
  • Explain the purpose of the BORG scale and let the client know that you will ask for that information a couple of times
  • Orient the client to the equipment
  • Remind your client that you will be watching for their safety, but they should let you know if they feel pain or if they need to stop the test for any reason
  • Start the treadmill at a comfortable speed for warm-up and have the client step on after the belt is moving.

During Exercise

  • Monitor client
  • Properly encourage client
  • Accurately obtain heart rate each minute during the warm-up and every 30 seconds during the workload
  • Record RPE once during the warm-up and once during the workload
  • Have your client warm-up to a HR of 50-70% of this HRmax
  • After the client feels warm, increase the speed to a self-selected jogging pace between 4.3 mph – 7.5 mph
  • Continue to monitor heart rate every 30 seconds for at least three full minutes of running
  • If the client has not reached a steady state heart rate after three minutes continue until SSHR is achieved.

Post-Exercise

  • Provide active recovery for 3-5minutes
  • Provide a passive recovery
  • Collect HR and BP information as necessary

Two equations, which for young adults tend to yield similar results, have been developed to predict aerobic fitness using this assessment:

  1. VO2max (mL/kg/min) = 54.07 + (7.062 × gender) − (0.1938 × kg) + (4.47 × mph) − (0.1453 × HR)
  • gender = 0=female and 1=male,
  • kg = body mass,
  • mph = self-selected jogging speed,
  • HR = steady-state heart rate (bpm) while jogging at level grade at the self-selected jogging speed
  1. VO2max (mL/kg/min) = 58.687 + (7.520 × gender) + (4.334 × mph) − (0.211 × kg) − (0.148 × HR) − (0.107 × Age)
  • gender = 0=female and 1=male,
  • mph = self-selected jogging speed,
  • kg = body mass,
  • HR = steady-state heart rate (bpm) while jogging at level grade at the self-selected jogging speed
  • age = age in years
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set-up Verbal Instructions:

  • Stand tall with your feet shoulder-width apart and toes pointed forward.
  • Grasp the dowel in both hands and place it on top of your head so your shoulders and elbows are at 90 degrees.
  • Press the dowel so that it is directly above your head.
  • While maintaining an upright torso and keeping your heels and the dowel in position, descend into a squat as deeply as possible.
  • Hold the bottom position for a count of one, and then return to the starting position.

Tips for testing:

  1. The client can perform the movement up to three times if necessary.
  2. If a score of three is not achieved, repeat above instructions using the board under the client’s heels.
  3. Observe the client from the front and side.
  4. All positions, including the foot position, should remain unchanged when the heels are elevated with either the FMS kit or a similar size board.

Scoring:

3: 

  • Torso is parallel with tibia or toward vertical
  • Femur is below horizontal
  • Knees do not track inside of feet
  • Dowel aligned over feet

2:

  • Same as above but the heels are elevated

1:

  • Tibia and torso are not parallel
  • Femur is not below horizontal
  • Knees track inside of feet
  • Dowel is not aligned over feet

0:

  • Pain
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Gait, Lower Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set-up Verbal Instructions:

  • Stand tall with your feet together and toes touching the test kit.
  • Grasp the dowel in both hands and place it on top of your head so your shoulders and elbows are at 90 degrees. Then while maintaining hand position, lower dowel to the base of the neck and across the shoulders.
  • While keeping an upright torso, raise the right leg and step over the hurdle, making sure to raise the foot towards the shin and maintain foot alignment vertically with the ankle, knee and hip.
  • Touch the floor with your heel and return to the starting position while maintaining the same alignment.

Tips for testing:

  1. Ensure the cord is aligned properly.
  2. Tell the client to stand as tall as possible at the beginning of the test.
  3. Score the moving leg.
  4. Repeat the test on both sides.
  5. The client can perform the movement up to three times on each side if necessary.
  6. Watch for a stable torso.
  7. Observe from the front and side.
  8. Make sure the toes of the stance leg stay in contact with the hurdle during and after each repetition.
  9. If the client physically cannot bring the feet together to touch, ask them to bring their feet together as close as possible with toes touching the test kit, then allow them to perform test from that position.

Scoring:

3:

  • Hips, knees and ankles remain aligned in the sagittal plane
  • Minimal to no movement in lumbar spine
  • Dowel and hurdle remain parallel

2:

  • Alignment is lost between hips, knees and ankles
  • Movement in Lumbar Spine
  • Dowel and hurdle do not remain parallel

1:

  • Inability to clear the cord during the hurdle step
  • Loss of Balance

0:

  • Pain
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set-up Verbal Instructions:

  • Step onto the center of the board with the right foot and your toe on the zero mark.
  • The left heel should be placed according to your tibial measurement at “__”.
  • Both toes must be pointing forward with the entire foot in contact with the board.
  • Place the dowel along the spine so it touches the back of your head, your upper back and your tailbone.
  • While grasping the dowel, your right hand should be in the curve of your neck, and the left hand should be in the curve of your lower back.
  • Maintaining an upright posture so the dowel stays vertical and you maintain the three points of contact, descend into a lunge position so your right knee touches the center of the board.
  • Then, return to the starting position.

Tips for testing:

  1. The front leg identifies the side you are scoring.
  2. The dowel remains vertical and in contact with the head, upper back and tail bone during movement.
  3. The front heel remains in contact with the board, and the back heel touches the board when returning to the starting position. Watch for loss of balance. For inline lunge, a loss of balance is stepping off the board.
  4. Remain close to the client to prevent a complete loss of balance.
  5. It’s important to remember that if the person does not at least make contact with the board or ground with the knee somewhere, it is the inability to complete the movement pattern, this is a score of one.
  6. Repeat the test on both sides.
  7. The client can perform the movement up to three times on each side if necessary.

Scoring:

3:

  • Dowel contact maintained
  • Dowel remains vertical
  • Minimal to no torso movement
  • Dowel and feet remain in sagittal plane
  • Knee touches the center of the board
  • Front foot remains in start position

2:

  • Dowel contact not maintained
  • Dowel does not remain vertical
  • Movement in torso
  • Dowel and feet do not remain in sagittal plane
  • Knee does not touch center of the board
  • Flat front foot does not remain in start position

1:

  • Loss of balance by stepping off the board
  • Inability to complete movement pattern
  • Inability to get into set up position

0:

  • Pain
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set-Up:

  1. Grasp dowel with hand in lower back and hand behind neck
  2. Perform a hip hinge with a dowel against your back to full flexion and extend back to standing.
  3. The dowel must touch your tailbone (coccyx), hand against lower back, dowel touches upper back, hand behind neck, and dowel touches head throughout the entire movement. Record angle where any contact point is lost.

Scoring:

3 – Client is able to achieve >60° hip flexion with dowel remaining in contact at all points.

2 – Client able to achieve 45-60° hip flexion before dowel loses contact.

1 – Back rounds or dowel loses contact before client achieves 45° hip flexion.

0 – Client unable to hinge OR pain occurs

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | vertical, Upper Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set-Up:

  1. Stand with your head, upper back and butt pressed firmly against a wall.
  2. With your shoulders depressed and scapula retracted, place your upper arms and forearms against the wall at about a 90 degree angle (back of elbow and hand should remain in contact with the wall).
  3. From there, press your arms overhead until you reach full extension.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set-Up:

  1. Assist client into the pushup position, only put their forearms on the ground instead of their hands.
  2. Have client squeeze their glutes and tighten their abdominals.
  3. Keep a neutral neck and spine.
  4. Create a straight, strong line from head to toes
  5. Hold that position and record length of time before client loses posture

Scoring:

Excellent: > 60 sec

Good: 30 – 60 sec

Needs Improvement: 15 – 30 sec

Poor: 0 – 15 sec

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set up verbal instructions:

  • Stand tall with your feet together and arms hanging comfortably
  • Make a fist so your fingers are around your thumbs
  • In one motion, reach the right fist over the head and down your back as far as possible while simultaneously reaching your left fist up your back as far as possible
  • Do not “creep” your hands closer after the initial placement

Tips for teaching

  1. The top shoulder identifies the side being scored
  2. Repeat the verbal instruction to “Stand tall…”. If by the 3rd attempt they still lose the setup position with cervical flexion or rounding of the back, stop the movement at the point they begin to lose position. Then take the measurement
  3. If the hand measurement is the same as the distance between two points, score low
  4. Make sure the client does not try to walk the hands toward each other following the initial placement
  5. Repeat the test and clearing exam on both sides
  6. The client can perform the movement up to three times on each side if necessary

Scoring:

3:

  • Fists are within one hand length

2:

  • Fists are within one and a half hand lengths

1:

  • Fists are not within one and a half hand lengths

0:

  • Pain

Clearing test:

  • Stand tall with your feet together and arms hanging comfortably
  • Place your right palm on the front of your left shoulder
  • While maintaining palm placement, raise your right elbow as high as possible.
  • Ask client, do you feel any pain?
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Lower Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set up verbal instructions:

  • Lie flat with the back of your knees against the board, feet together with toes pointing up
  • Place both arms next to your body with the palms facing up
  • With the scoring leg remaining straight and the back of the opposite knee maintaining contact with the board, raise your scoring leg as high as possible

Tips for teaching:

  1. The moving limb identifies the side being scored
  2. Make sure the non-moving limb maintains a neutral position
  3. Repeat the test on both sides
  4. The client can perform the movement up to three times on each side if necessary
  5. Only move stick if a definitive vertical reference is needed at the border of 1 or 2 at mid-joint line
  6. Ask them to bring their feet together as close as Then perform the test from that position. Soles of feet still need to be perpendicular to the ground

Scoring:

3:

  • Vertical line of the malleolus resides between mid-thigh and ASIS
  • The non-moving limb remains in neutral position

2:

  • Vertical line of the malleolus resides between mid-thigh and mid-patella
  • The non-moving limb remains in neutral position

1:

  • Vertical line of the malleolus resides below the mid-patella
  • The non-moving limb remains in neutral position

0:

  • Pain
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal, Whole Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set up verbal instructions:

  • Lie face down with arms extended overhead at shoulder-width apart.
  • Pull your thumbs down in line with your (forehead for men, chin for women).
  • With your legs together, pull your toes toward the shins.
  • Extend your knees and then lift your elbows slightly off the ground.
  • While maintaining a rigid torso, push your body as one unit into a push-up position.

Tips for teaching:

  1. The client should lift the body as a unit
  2. To identify “shoulder-width apart” for hand position, align the web of the thumb with the crease of the armpit. This will place the hands at the individuals “should-width” position
  3. Be sure that the client starts with arms overhead and then drags the hands down at shoulder-width apart to the start It may be necessary to give them a tactile cue to adjust their hand to the correct position.
  4. On each attempt, make sure the client maintains the hand position and the hands do not slide down as the client prepares to push
  5. Make sure the chest and stomach come off the floor simultaneously
  6. The client can perform the movement up to three times if necessary
  7. Repeat the instruction with appropriate hand placement if necessary

Scoring:

3:

  • Men perform a repetition with thumbs aligned with the top of the forehead
  • Women perform a repetition with thumbs aligned with the chin
  • The body lifts as a unit with no lag in the spine

2:

  • Men perform a repetition with thumbs aligned with the chin
  • Women perform a repetition with thumbs aligned with the clavicle
  • The body lifts as a unit with no lag in the spine

1:

  • Men are unable to perform a repetition with thumbs aligned with the chin
  • Women are unable to perform a repetition with thumbs aligned with the clavicle

0:

  • Pain

Clearing Test:

  • While lying on your stomach, place your hands, palms down, under your shoulders
  • With no lower body movement, press your upper body off the ground until your elbows are straight
  • Ask client, do you feel pain?
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | stabilization, Whole Body Target: Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Set up verbal instructions:

  • Get down on your hands and knees straddling the board with your thumbs, knees and toes touching the
  • Your hands are under your shoulders and your knees are under your hips with your toes pointing
  • At the same time, in one smooth and controlled motion, shift and lift the same side arm and leg.
  • Without touching down, reach back with your hand and touch the outside of the ankle.
  • Then extend that same side leg backward and arm forward, fully extending knee and elbow.
  • Finally reach back to touch the ankle with the hand again, and then return to the starting position.
  • Perform this pattern while keeping the arm and leg moving in-line with board.

 

 

Tips for teaching:

  1. Inability to complete the pattern would indicate that they lost balance, could not perform without making contact with the test kit, or could not get into setup position. This results in Score of 1.
  2. The foot, knee and thumbs should be in contact with the board to establish the start position. While shifting to complete the movement pattern, the foot and knee may slightly lose contact with board, but foot and knee start position on the ground should not change. Although they may lose contact, they should not roll away from board to the point that the placement of their hand, knee or foot changes on the ground.
  3. Loss of balance: Touching hand or foot down after the initial lift from the ground at any point before completing the pattern.

Scoring:

3:

  • Hand and knee leave ground at the same time. Ability to perform this patter while keeping the arm and leg moving in-line and parallel with the board. Fingers touch the lateral malleolus. Knee and elbow achieve full extension.

2:

  • Hand and knee did not leave the ground at the same time. Inability to keep the arm and leg moving in-line. Fingers touch the lateral malleolus. Knee and elbow achieve full extension.

1:

  • Loss of balance. Hand does not touch the lateral malleolus. Knee and elbow do not fully extend. Inability to get into set-up position.

0:

  • Pain

Clearing Test:

  • Get into the same start position with feet pointed backwards, and rock your hips toward your heels
  • Lower your chest to your knees, and reach your hands in front of your body as far as possible
  • Ask client, do you feel any pain?
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Rectus Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Start seated with knees bent and feet flat on the floor, holding one plate with both hands in front of the chest.
  2. Keeping the spine long and the abdominals tight, lean back slightly and lift the feet a few inches off the floor. (To modify, keep the feet on the floor.)
  3. Slowly twist the torso to the left and bring the plate beside the left hip. Return to center, and then slowly twist to the right and bring the weight beside the right hip to complete one rotation.
Common Error(s): Not engaging core | Inappropriate momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Core | rotation Target: Obliques Synergist(s): Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

This drill can be done with a partner or up against a wall.

With a wall

  1. Kneel with your left side facing a wall about 5 feet away.
  2. Hold a med ball at your right hip.
  3. Rotate your core and throw the med ball against the wall with an underhand toss.
  4. Catch the med ball off the bounce and repeat 5-6 reps per side.

With a partner

  1. Kneel with your left side facing your partner (who is standing 5-10 feet away).
  2. Your partner will throw/toss a medicine ball into your outstretched arms.
  3. You catch the medicine ball, allowing the momentum to take it down towards your right hip.
  4. Quickly change directions and toss the med ball back towards your partner.
  5. Repeat for 5-6 reps per side.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Pull | horizontal Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Deltoid (Posterior), Rhomboids
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Instructions

  1. Set up so the barbell is along your side.
  2. With your chest up and back flat, bend over and grasp the bar near the collar with a neutral grip, keeping your knees bent.
  3. Pull your elbow as high as possible, but don’t twist your body; keep it square and facing forward.
  4. Always keep your head neutrally aligned as well.

Variations (1-arm Meadows Row)

  1. Set up so the barbell is perpendicular to your body (see photo below).
  2. With your chest up and back flat, bend over and grasp the bar near the collar with a neutral grip, keeping your knees bent.
  3. Pull your elbow as high as possible, but don’t twist your body; keep it square and facing forward.
  4. Always keep your head neutrally aligned as well.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation, Upper Body Target: Suboccipitals Synergist(s):
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Do not flex head forward.  Stretch with the horizontal plane.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Latissimus Dorsi
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Press | horizontal Target: Pec Major Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior)
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Set both pulleys directly at (or slightly above) shoulder height and select the desired weight.
  2. Grasp both handles with a neutral grip and take a step forward to split the stance.
  3. Press the handles to lockout while flexing the pecs and extending the elbows.
  4. Keep a slight bend in the elbows, move entirely at the shoulder joint, and slowly allow the arms to open while the pecs stretch.
  5. Return to the starting position by flexing your pecs and bringing the handles together at chest height.
  6. Slowly lower back to the starting position and repeat for the desired number of repetitions.
Common Error(s): Using Excessive Momentum
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Latissimus Dorsi Synergist(s): Obliques
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

While seated in a secure wheelchair/chair reach a fully extended arm overhead and then lean to the opposite side.  Intensify the stretch by reaching further away from the body and/or grabbing an anchor (e.g. rig/rack) and leaning away.  Be careful not to tip the chair.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: 1-Arm Clean and Press Progressions: Power Snatch
Key Teaching Points
  1. Position the bar over your foot
  2. Setup with your feet in a shoulder width stance, toes pointed out slightly, and your hands slightly wider than shoulder width.
  3. Drop your hips and drive the chest up while looking forward.
  4. Keeping the bar close to your body, begin to push the floor away and shift your knees back.
  5. As the bar passes your knees, shift your knees forward into a power position with your torso upright. Explosively jump straight up and shrug the bar aggressively.
  6. As the bar passes your shoulders, rotate your elbows around the bar until they are facing forward. Catch the clean on your shoulders in the front rack position with your hands outside of your shoulders in a standing position.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Squat Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Quadriceps, Spinal Erectors, Transverse Abdominus
Exercise
Regressions: FMS Deep Squat Progressions: Trap Bar Deadlift | Deadlift
Key Teaching Points

Using ideal lifting mechanics (i.e. neutral spine, load close to body, lift with legs) pick the medicine ball up and down from the ground.  Your goal is to reinforce proper lifting mechanics.

Common Error(s): Rounded lower back | Not engaging core
Spotting: Mirror Client Level
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Deltoids (Anterior), Transverse Abdominus, Triceps
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
  1. Stand about 2-3 feet in front of the wall with your feet hip-width apart, toes slightly outward.
  2. Hold the ball at chest height. Make sure to tuck your elbows into your sides.
  3. Engage your core and squeeze the ball.
  4. Squat down until your thighs are parallel with the floor, keeping the ball at chest level.
  5. Drive up (full extension) and allow arms to fully extend while tossing the ball at a vertical target ~10 feet high.
  6. Catch the ball as it comes down, keeping the ball at chest height. Repeat the exercise.
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Hinge Target: Gluteals Synergist(s): Hamstrings, Hip Abductors
Exercise
Regressions: Clam Shell Progressions: Hip Abduction Squats
Key Teaching Points

Secure band just above the knee.  Follow best practice for bridge exercise form.  At the top of the bridge abduct at the hips.  Increase intensity by tightening band and/or using a stronger band.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Whole Body Target: Quadriceps Synergist(s): Gluteals, Hamstrings, Spinal Erectors, Trapezius
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points
Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Upper Body Target: Synergist(s): Wrist Flexor, Wrist Extensor, Wrist Pronator, Wrist Supinator
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Develop your grip by progressively lifting heavier loads while using a wider diameter bar.  Never develop grip during maximal lift attempts.  Deadlift grips and or neutral carry grips are both appropriate.  Make sure you are in an environment where you can safely drop the bar.

Common Error(s):
Spotting:
Movement Pattern: Single-joint | isolation Target: Biceps Synergist(s): Brachialis
Exercise
Regressions: Progressions:
Key Teaching Points

Following Active Hands guidelines (see video) secure the KB to hand with gripping limitations.  If good trunk control remove arm rest on wheelchair.  Seated upright complete a full elbow flexion range of motion biceps curl.  Slowly (under control) lower the weight back down to near but not full elbow extension.  Engage core throughout.  Repeat.

Common Error(s): Inappropriate momentum | Rounded shoulders
Spotting: